Michael has a BA in History & American Studies and an MSc in American History from the University of Edinburgh. He comes from a proud military family and has spent most of his career as an educator in the Middle East and Asia. His passion is travel, and he seizes any opportunity to share his experiences in the most immersive way possible, whether at sea or on the land.

Southwest Apacheria

Big Dry Wash | Camp Date Creek | Camp Grant Massacre | Canyon de Chelly | Casas Grandes | Cedar Springs | Cibecue Creek | Davidson Canyon | Doubtful Canyon | Embudo Canyon (Geronimo surrenders at) | Fort Apache Siege | Geronimo Surrenders to Miles | Gila River Campaign | Hatfield Fight | Hembrillo Canyon | Horseshoe Canyon | Hualapai War | Lebo Fight | Los Animas | Mariposa War | Mimbres Mountains | Mountain Meadows | Oatman Massacre | Ojo Caliente | Old Camp Grant | Old Fort Camp Bowie | Percha Creek (NP) | Quitman Canyon | Rio Corralitos | San Andres Mountains | Sierra Tres Castillos | Tinaja de las Palmas | Tonto Basin Campaigns | Window Rock
Southwest United States Frontier Historical Map
Apacheria Forts
Arizona and S. California
New Mexico and Texas
Battle Maps
Western Apacheria
Central Apacheria
Eastern Apacheria
Big Bend
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Fort Name

Picture of Fort Apache

Apache, Fort AZ


Bayard, Fort NM

Picture of Fort Bliss

Bliss, Fort TX

Picture of Fort Bowie

Bowie, Fort AZ

Picture of Fort Buenaventura

Buenaventura, Fort UT


Burgwin, Fort NM


Picture of Fort Churchill

Churchill, Fort NV

Picture of Cove Fort

Cove Fort UT


Craig, Fort NM

Picture of Fort Cummings

Cummings, Fort NM


Picture of Camp Date Creek

Date Creek, Camp AZ

Picture of Fort Davis

Davis, Fort TX

Picture of Fortin de la Cienega

de la Cienega, Fortin TX


Defiance, Fort AZ

Fort Defiance is located northeast of Holbrook between Chinle and Window Rock along Highway 7 near the New Mexico state line.

Fort Defiance was established as Arizona's first military post for the U.S. Army to patrol the Navajo Country. It was later used to subdue the Navajos on their homeland, and then, be slowly phased into a Navajo Agency to govern the Navajos.

Located at the mouth of Canyon Bonito in Apache County, about 7 miles north of Window Rock, Arizona, or 25 miles northwest of Gallup, New Mexico. It is at an elevation of 6836 feet above sea level. Fort Defiance was originally the location of the first Navajo Medical Center on the entire Navajo Reservation.

Picture of Fort Deseret

Deseret, Fort UT

Picture of Fort Deseret


Near Mile Post 65 south of Deseret on Utah Highway 257

In the spring of 1865, the inhabitants of the fledgling community of Deseret became concerned that they might experience trouble during an Indian uprising known as the Black Hawk War, so they set about constructing a fort for their own protection. While Black Hawk came upon the area during this time, the settlers successfully negotiated with this man and no fighting ensued. An interesting note is that the fort was never used for its initial purpose, instead cattle were housed in this fortified structure.

Picture of Fort Douglas

Douglas, Fort UT

Picture of Fort Duncan

Duncan, Fort TX

Fort Duncan, located on the east side of the Rio Grande, just above Eagle Pass, was established on March 27, 1849, by Captain Sidney Burank, and occupied by three companies of the First U.S. Infantry Regiment. During the Civil War the post was occupied by Confederate troops of the Frontier Regiment. Federal troops reoccupied the post in 1868. It remained under military authority until 1916. Its primary purpose was to protect the trade crossing into Mexico and travelers along the road to El Paso. It was taken over by the city in 1935, and today many restored stone buildings form the center of a municipal park and country club. The old headquarters serves as a museum.


Esperanza, Fort TX


Picture of Camp Floyd

Floyd, Camp UT


Picture of Fort Grant

Grant, Fort AZ


Halleck, Fort NV

Established as Camp Halleck by Captain S.P. Smith July 26, 1867, to protect the California Emigrant Trail and construction work on the Central Pacific Railroad. The Camp was named for Major General Henry Wager Halleck, at that time Commander, Military Division of the Pacific. In May, 1968, it became headquarters for the Nevada Military District when Fort Churchill was abandoned.

Picture of Fort Huachuca

Huachuca, Fort AZ

Picture of Camp Hualpai

Hualapai, Camp AZ


Picture of Fort Lancaster

Lancaster, Fort TX

Picture of Fort Leaton

Leaton, Fort TX

Picture of Fort Lowell

Lowell, Fort AZ


Marcy, Fort NM

Picture of Fort McDowell

McDowell, Fort AZ

Picture of Fort McDowell Ruins
Photo by Tom McCurnin

Located in Maricopa County near Fountain Hills.

Adobe ruins of the old fort about 2 miles off the Beeline Highway on the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation.

Picture of Fort McDowell Ruins
Photo by Tom McCurnin

Camp McDowell was established in 1865 and closed in 1890. This site was established by the United States Calvary to control the Yavapai and Apache Indians in the area.


McGarry, Camp NV

Camp McGarry here on the old Applegate Trail was an Army fort manned from 1865 to 1868.

Picture of Fort Misery

Misery, Fort AZ

Picture of Fort Misery
Fort Misery

Located in Yavapai County

If you come up from Lake Pleasant make sure you are one of Arizona's better 4WDers! The easier way is to come down from Crown King.

One building remains and much evidence of inhabitants.

Picture of Fort Misery Remains
Fort Misery Remains

Al Francis built Fort Misery as his home while he lived in the Bradshaw Mountains. Al was in charge of hauling ore from Oro Belle to Crown King. He jokingly called his home "Fort Misery" and the name stuck. Francis was responsible, along with Burro John, for putting up William Bell "Kentuck"'s grave headstone. Fort Misery was inhabited through the 1920's.


Mojave, Fort AZ

For 220 miles from the ruins of Fort Mojave on the banks of the Colorado River to Camp Cady (now detours through Afton Canyon) runs the Mojave Road.


Pena, Fort TX

Fort Pena Colorada

Marker Title: Fort Pena Colorada (Red Rock)
County: Brewster
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: From Marathon, take local road 4-5 mi. southwest to camp ground & city park.
Marker Text: Established in 1880 as a means of preventing Indian raids into Mexico. Raided by Apaches in 1881. Abandoned in 1893 after Western Texas had been permanently cleared of Indians.


Quitman, Fort TX


Russell, Fort D.A. WY


Picture of San Xavier del Bac Mission

San Xavier del Bac Mission AZ


Schellbourne, Fort NV

(1860 - 1869), near Cherry Creek

First called Camp Schell. Troops were sent here to protect the mining town, the Overland Stage, and Pony Express Routes. The Schell Creek Stage Station was established here in 1859. The post was abandoned after the Union Pacific Railroad was completed. Remains of some structures still exist on a private ranch at Schell Creek, about 20 miles south of Lages.

Picture of Fort Selden

Selden, Fort NM

Picture of Fort Stanton

Stanton, Fort NM

Picture of Fort Stockton

Stockton, Fort TX

Picture of Fort Sumner

Sumner, Fort NM


Tularosa, Fort NM


Store and post office. Few residences. Nothing of the old fort remains.

Originally the name of an ancient Spanish province. The town's name comes from a family which arrived in NM in 1693. Aragon is old Fort Tularosa, which served as an Apache Indian agency from 1872 to 1874. The Indians were moved here from the Ojo Caliente reservation, then moved back and the fort was abandoned in 1874.


Picture of Fort Union

Union, Fort NM


Utah, Fort UT


Verde, Camp TX

Picture of Fort Verde

Verde, Fort AZ


Picture at Fort Whipple

Whipple, Fort AZ

Picture of Window Rock

Window Rock AZ

Picture of Fort Wingate

Wingate, Fort NM


Picture of Fort Yuma

Yuma, Fort AZ

Doubtful Canyon

The following story is from the book, Encyclopedia of Indian Wars, by Gregory F. Michno.

Lt. Henry H. Stevens, 5th California Infantry, and 54 men of Company I were on a march from Fort Cummings to Fort Bowie. As they passed through Doubtful Canyon near Stein's Peak, about 100 Apaches attacked them. The fight lasted for nearly two hours and resulted in 10 Apaches dead and about 20 wounded, and 1 soldier missing, presumed killed, and 6 wounded, 1 mortally.

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