Michael has a BA in History & American Studies and an MSc in American History from the University of Edinburgh. He comes from a proud military family and has spent most of his career as an educator in the Middle East and Asia. His passion is travel, and he seizes any opportunity to share his experiences in the most immersive way possible, whether at sea or on the land.

Young County, Texas

Enemy of the Comanche, this tribe scouted and fought for Texans and the army but were forced into Indian Territory in the late 1850s. Viciously attacked in the early 60s, the remnants wandered back across the Red River to establish small communities near

From Ty Cashion's book, A Texas Frontier:

...In 1884 the government established a reservation in Indian Territory for the seventy-eight surviving members of the tribe and their nineteen Lipan dependents. That October troops from Fort Clark drove the Tonkawas from their tipi village and herded them onto a train at Albany. Waiting for the transfer at Cisco, they looked consummately out of place to a woman who remembered watching the "female tribespeople...picking the lice out of their children's hair."

[Fort Griffin Echo, Feb. 5, 1881; Schilz, "History of the Tonkawas," 213-14; Nance, "Nance and the Tonkawas," 94-95; Biggers, Shackelford County Sketches, 84-85.]

The following account is from the book, Frontier Defense in the Civil War, by David Paul Smith.

Chief Placido and Castile's Tonkawas

Tonkawa Chief Castile
Tonkawa Chief Castile
From the book, Texas Frontier, by Ty Cashion

Chief Placido and Castile's Tonkawas

Chief Placido and Castile's Tonkawas

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