Gregg County Historical Markers

Texas Brazos Trail Region
Map of Gregg County Historic Sites
Markers (click on a topic to jump to that section.)
Big Inch Pipeline | Cherokee Trace | Crim Home, Lou Della | Dalton Gang's Last Raid | Dean-Keener-Crim House | East Texas Oil Museum at Kilgore College | Fredonia Townsite | Gladewater | Gregg County | Gregg County Historical Museum | Gregg, General John | Hogg Newspaper, James S. | Kilgore | Lathrop A-1, Arkansas Fuel Oil Co. | Liberty City | Longview | Longview | New Deal Era in Kilgore | Point Pleasant | Rockwall Farm | Rosedale Cemetery | Teague Home | Wartime Home Industry | World's Richest Acre
Uncommemorated and Unmapped Sites
Lone Wolf Gonzaullas (by Kent Biffle)

Big Inch Pipeline

Marker Title: Big Inch Pipeline
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1990
Marker Location: Martin Luther King at Pittman St.
Marker Text: Before the United States entry into World War II following the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, ninety-five percent of the crude oil delivered to East Coast refineries was transported by tanker ships. Ninety percent of that oil originated from Texas oil fields. Beginning in february 1942, many U.S. oil tankers en route from the Gulf of Mexico to the East Coast were sunk by German submarines. Recognizing the need to transport oil under safer circumstances, Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes developed a plan for massive overland oil pipeline. Under the auspices of the War Emergency Pipelines, Inc., construction began on the largest pipeline in history up to that time. Measuring twenty-four inches in diameter, the Big Inch pipeline extended from Longview to Norris City, Illinois, and eventually to refineries in the East. The Big Inch pipeline's impact on the war effort was tremendous, enabling the safe and timely transport of oil products vital to the Allies. During the height of wartime service, over 300,000 barrels of oil were delivered each day over the 1,476-mile line. When the war ended the Big Inch continued in service after conversion to a natural gas pipeline.

Cherokee Trace

Marker Title: Cherokee Trace
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: on US 80 at intersection w/FM 3272 in White Oak, 7 mi. west of Longview
Marker Text: In 1821 near this site, Cherokee Indians blazed a trail from near Nacogdoches, Texas, to their home reservation at White River, Ark. They slashed trees, cleared path, planted "Cherokee" roses, and established camps at springs. Used by Sam Houston, friend of the Cherokees, on his move to Texas; by David Crockett, other soldiers of the Texas Revolution, and thousands of immigrants. After June 1839, when Texas settlers drove the Cherokees out of the state, the Indians departed over this trail; others traveled it for years thereafter.

Crim Home, Lou Della

Marker Title: Lou Della Crim Home
Address: 201 N. Longview St.
City: Kilgore
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1981
Marker Text: This bungalow style residence was constructed in 1920 for Lou Della (Thompson) Crim (b. 1868), on the former site of the Hearne Hotel. The farm she owned at Laird Hill (4 mi. S) was part of an oil exploration project headed by her son Malcolm, later the first Kilgore mayor, and local financier Ed Bateman. Her property gained national attention on Dec. 28, 1930, when the Bateman-Crim Wildcat Well No. 1, the discovery well for this area of the significant East Texas oil field, blew in there. Area Rangers, including the celebrated Capt. M.T. (Lone Wolf) Gonzaullas, were housed here.

Dalton Gang's Last Raid

Marker Title: Dalton Gang's Last Raid
Address: Tyler and Freedonia St.
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Text: A bloody day (May 23, 1894) in early Longview. Bill Dalton, leader of armed gang presented a note for money at First National Bank. A gunfight erupted when Sheriff Jack Howard, City Marshall Mat Muckleroy and citizens resisted. Three local men-- J.W. McQueen, Geo. Buckingham, Charles Learn-- and one outlaw died of gunshot wounds. Bank president J.R. Clemmons and cashier Tom Clemmons were held as hostages for a short time as outlaws made getaway into Oklahoma. Forged $20 bank notes led to capture of survivors.

Dean-Keener-Crim House

Marker Title: Dean-Keener-Crim House
Address: 101 E. Lantrip St.
City: Kilgore
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1975
Marker Text: The one-story east wing of this house, considered the oldest still standing in Kilgore, was built by S. G. Dean about 1876. After buying the structure in 1881, L.J. Keener (1840-88) attached the two-story west wing. Wiley N. Crim (1865-1937) a cotton ginner and grocer, added porches and enclosed the well when he purchased the house in 1902. His family still owns and occupies it. Oil was discovered on this and nearby Crim property during the boom of the 1930s. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark-1975

East Texas Oil Museum at Kilgore College

Museum Name: East Texas Oil Museum at Kilgore College
Mailing Address: Hwy 259 at Ross St
City: Kilgore
Zip Code: 75662
Area Code: 903
Phone: 983-8295
County: Gregg
Types of Exhibits/Collections: Science, Art, Natural History, Archeology, Interactive, Photos, Historical, Local/Pioneer History, Archives.

Fredonia Townsite

Marker Title: Old Fredonia Townsite
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Text: Founded by Haden Edwards, a land grantee who contracted in 1825 with Mexican government to establish 800 families of settlers in East Texas. A later misunderstanding with Mexico caused him to organize famous Fredonian rebellion, and flee to the U.S. in 1827 in failure. Town of Fredonia prospered, however. It was important ferry crossing and river port. Had 40 or 50 buildings, including homes, 3 warehouses (mainly for cotton), and a brick kiln. After the Civil War, post office was given up. Bypassing by railroad caused abandonment of town about 1870.

Gladewater

Marker Title: Gladewater
City: Gladewater
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: 1 mi. west of Gladewater on US 80
Marker Text: Founded 1827 as St. Clair, 3 mi. east. Moved to present site on Glade Creek and T&P Railway in 1872. Population increased from 500 to 7000 after discovery of oil in 1931, when it became production and refining hub. Manufacturing, clothing, medical, farming and dairy center. Home of annual East Texas Quarter Horse Show and the richest self-supporting cemetery in the world. Round-up association sponsors June rodeo, nationally known, in unique arena in abandoned salt water disposal pit. Historic sites marked.

Gregg County

Marker Title: Gregg County
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: just east of N. High St. on south side of US 80
Marker Text: Formed from Rusk and Upshur counties. Created April 12, 1873; organized June 28, 1873. Named in honor of General John Gregg (1828-1864). Delegate to Secession Convention and to the Provisional Congress of the Southern Confederacy; a Confederate officer. Longview, the county seat.

Gregg County Historical Museum

Museum Name: Gregg County Historical Museum
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 3342
City: Longview
Zip Code: 75606
Street Address: 214 N Fredonia Street
Area Code: 903
Phone: 753-5840
County: Gregg
Types of Exhibits/Collections: Military, Interactive, Photos, Historical, Local/Pioneer History, Archives

Gregg, General John

Marker Title: General John Gregg
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: Courthouse lawn, E. Methvin at Fredonia St.
Marker Text: (1828-1864) Star and Wreath Born Alabama. Came to Texas 1854. Judge, Confederate congressman. Organized 7th Texas Infantry as colonel 1861. Captured at Fort Donelson, Tenn. 1862. Promoted brigadier general after exchange. Commanded brigade Vicksburg Campaign 1863. Severely wounded Battle of Chickamauga Oct. 1863. Returning to action 1864 led Hood's Texas Brigade in heavy fighting in Virginia. Killed in action near Richmond, Oct. 7, 1864. A memorial to Texans who served the Confederacy; erected by the State of Texas 1963 Texas Secession Convention This meeting, which had John Gregg as a key member, was extra-legal governing body of delegates from over Texas, held January-March 1861. Drew up secession ordinance - ratified by 3 to 1 popular vote. Selected delegates to convention of southern states in Montgomery, Ala. Declared office of Anti-secessionist governor Sam Houston vacant, putting in Lt. Governor Edward Clark. Ratified C.S.A. Constitution. Raised troops to seize U.S. property, getting $3,000,000 worth by surrender. Placed troops at outposts to protect frontier.

Hogg Newspaper, James S.

Marker Title: Site of James S. Hogg Newspaper
Address: 102 N. Fredonia St.
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Text: Texas' first native governor (1891-1895), James Stephen Hogg, founded here in 1871 his first newspaper, the Longview "News". He was then 20 years old. In his paper Hogg was a strong supporter of educational and governmental improvements for Longview. He campaigned against radical reconstruction policies, railroad subsidies, lawlessness. This venture, following earlier apprentice news work, showed Hogg's alertness, self-confidence. He was a publisher for 3 years. This experience developed his qualities of leadership and led to later success as a statesman.

Kilgore

Marker Title: Kilgore
City: Kilgore
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: US 259 at Kilgore St. (in traffic triangle)
Marker Text: "Oil City of the World" Founded 1872 with coming of the I.G.N. Railroad. Named for site donor, a Confederate colonel, Constantine B. Kilgore, State Senator and U.S. Congressman. Geographical center of huge East Texas oil field. World's greatest concentration of steel derricks. Petroleum production, service, supply, processing hub. Commercial, industrial, farm, education and medical center. Home of Kilgore College and its famous "Rangerettes", women's precision drill team; and of Van Cliburn, international concert pianist.

Lathrop A-1, Arkansas Fuel Oil Co.

Marker Title: Gregg County Discovery Oil Well, F. K. Lathrop A-1, Aransas Fuel Oil Co.
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Marker Location: on Brent Rd., .2 mi. north of FM 2605, Tennyville Rd.
Marker Text: After years of undaunted faith in discovery of oil in East Texas, B.A. Skipper, Sr., assembled an 8300-acre block under lease; made a deal with J. E. Farrell, W.A. Moncrief and E.A. Showers; had the well drilled to 3500 feet. At this point Arkansas Fuel Oil Co. (now Cities Service Oil Co.) bought a half interest and assumed operations. Drillers were W.A. Andrews, B. A. Ferrell and James H. Lowery. Crew members were C.R. Kaylor, R.T. Crisp, C. Spruill, A.W. Owens, C.O. Croley, D.V. Chidester, Geo. Jones, J.V. Huckaboy, R.E. Roe, E.E. Houchin and R.H. Summers. The F.K. Lathrop A-1 was spudded in on Dec. 3, 1930; hit caprock at 3569 feet; was completed on Jan. 26, 1931, at total depth of 3587 feet. With an initial potential of 18,000 barrels of oil daily, it has produced over 527,000 barrels in its first 35 years. Oil fever ran high with the completion of the Joiner No. 3-Daisy Bradford at Turnertown, Oct. 1930; the E. W. Bateman No. 1 - L.D. Crim at Kilgore, Dec. 1930; and climaxed here with the F.K. Lathrop A-1. However, few could imagine that soon these three would be linked and extended to form the great East Texas field, which covers some 200 square miles and has made a world record as the largest of its time.

Liberty City

Marker Title: Liberty City
City: Kilgore
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: 1 mi. north of I-20 on old 135-Gladewater Hwy., 4 mi. north of Kilgore.
Marker Text: Historic rural community in oil-rich Gregg County. Settled before Civil War. Has also been known as Sabine, Mount Moriah, McCrary's Chapel, Goforth and Hog Eye (for an early settler with an "eye" for hogs). Present name adopted in early days of famous East Texas oil boom. Area served by Sabine School district, established 1893; an example of excellent schools in county. Also crossed by great system of improved, all weather county roads-- finest in state. Center of farming, livestock raising. Has fine churches, park and community meeting places.

Longview

Marker Title: Site of Naming of Longview
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Marker Location: just east of N. High St. on south side of US 80
Marker Text: Application: Marks spot where group stood when surveying city of Longview and said "What a long view" hence the name Longview.

Longview

Marker Title: Longview
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: US 80 at Fisher Rd., about 3 mi. west of downtown
Marker Text: Named for "long view" from Rock Hill when surveyors laid off townsite in 1870. Incorporated June 24, 1871. Became county seat of Gregg County; also railroad, agricultural and lumber center. Its history includes an 1894 bank robbery-- the last raid of the notorious "Dalton Gang". Early home of Governors Thomas M. Campbell and James S. Hogg. Since nearby 1931 Lathrop Well extended East Texas oil field into world's largest, it has been a petroleum, financial, industrial, medical, cultural, religious hub. Home of LeTourneau College. Historic sites marked.

New Deal Era in Kilgore

Marker Title: The New Deal Era in Kilgore
Address: 600 E. North St.
City: Kilgore
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1993
Marker Text: After the discovery of oil here in the 1930s, this site was transformed into a makeshift tent city by thousands of people displaced by a deepening national depression. In an effort to control growth, city officials chose this site as the focus of an ambitious public works program in 1934. The park project, which included extensive rock work, was influenced by the planning and foresight of other Federal "New Deal" projects underway in Kilgore at the time (Kilgore Public Library and Kilgore College Administration Building). The park project was finished about 1936.

Point Pleasant

Marker Title: Point Pleasant
Address: US 80 (in front of Municipal Bldg.)
City: Clarksville City
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1984
Marker Text: From about 1850 until 1871, a post office, which served the Point Pleasant community, operated near this site. The area was known as Gilead under the first postmaster, L.B. Camp, who earlier had established a ferry crossing the Sabine River (2 mi. W). when the name Point Pleasant was adopted in 1852, J.K.Armstrong (d. 1860) was named postmaster. Other postmasters who served Point Pleasant were William W. Walters (d. 1885), who operated the stage stop where the post office was located, Claiborn Halbert, and Joshua W. Monk. Elisha A. Mackey was Point Pleasant's last official postmaster. During its 21 years of existence the Point Pleasant Post Office served approximately 48 families including those of Jarret Dean, James Hendrick, Mason Moseley, Augustus Moseley, A.H. Abney, A.C. Williams, Jacob M. Lacy, A.G. Rogers, and A.T. Wright. The Point Pleasant School (called Possom Trot and still operating in 1908 with Trustees R.A. Hendrix, E.W. Clements, and Mr. Phillips) and Moseley Cemetery also served these pioneers. When the railroad came through in 1873, the new towns of Gladewater and Longview drew residents away from the Point Pleasant area. Clarksville City, created by the 1931 East Texas oil boom, later developed at the site of the Point Pleasant community. Incise on back: In memory of our mother Minnie Clements Phillips (1892-1973)

Rockwall Farm

Marker Title: Rockwall Farm
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: on US 80 (northside) about 2 mi. west of downtown Longview
Marker Text: Large colonial home built 50 yards north, 1854. Overnight stop on Wm. T. Brooks' stagecoach line from Monroe, LA., to Tyler. From here, mail went to Earpville, a site now in Longview. Slaves hewed lumber, made the chimney brocks from trees and clay on the place. The first floor partitions folded away to make big ballroom. The black walnut coffin built for house owner John Harris was favored table for poker upstairs. Last owners, J. Roy Sparkman and Jack Castleberry families, restored, opened to visitors. House burned in 1952.

Rosedale Cemetery

Marker Title: Rosedale Cemetery
Address: on US 80 at Loop 485
City: Gladewater
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1978
Marker Text: When John Kettle Armstrong and his wife Sarah bought 160 acres here in 1844, they were among the first settlers. Sarah died in 1856 and Armstrong set aside this tract for a cemetery. Tradition says the Armstrong slaves were interred outside the grounds. After Armstrong's death in 1860, his second wife Margaret Fisher married a Mr. Stewart. For years the Armstrongs and Stewarts allowed everyone to use the graveyard which was called "Stewart Cemetery." After the railroad started the town of Gladewater, a cemetery association organized in 1911 and changed the name of the graveyard to "Rosedale." An additional five acres were purchased from J.K. Armstrong and his wife. "Permits" for burial were sold instead of lots. When the East Texas oil boom began, this policy allowed all surface and mineral rights to remain with the association. In 1932 two oil wells were drilled on the burial ground. The association used the profits to build a caretaker's cottage, roads, a rock fence and to landscape the grounds. In 1973, after 41 years, the wells were plugged. Still in use, the burial ground has about 265 unmarked and 750 marked graves. Many of the older plots are covered with large red rocks.

Teague Home

Marker Title: Early Teague Home
Address: 322 Teague St.
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Marker Text: One of few remaining houses of Earpville (early Longview). North boundary of tract on Wm. t. Brooks' stagecoach line from Monroe, LA. to Tyler, Texas. Built before 1882, when it was purchased by Latimus and Mary Teague, natives of Alabama. Two daughters, Misses Molly and Sarah Teague, held school sessions and taught music here beginning 1890. Classes moved to separate building where they continued until 1905. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark -1966

Wartime Home Industry

Marker Title: Wartime Home Industry
City: Longview
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: on SH 300 (2700 Gilmer Rd.) at Green Oak.
Marker Text: At this site, 1861-65, settler Joseph M. sparkman manufactured shoes for the Confederate Army. A victim of arthritis, he lay on his cot and ran the shop, while "Uncle Ben," a skilled slave shoemaker who had come with him from Georgia, supervised and taught young boys and old men who made the shoes. Both Joseph M. Sparkman and "Uncle Ben" are buried in the family plot on the estate, near here. Their work during the Civil War typifies the gallant spirit of volunteers who mined salt, made cloth and clothing, hunted the woods for medicinal herbs.

World's Richest Acre

Marker Title: World's Richest Acre
Address: Main and Commerce
City: Kilgore
County: Gregg
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Marker Text: Part of fabulous East Texas oil field discovered in 1930. This 1.195-acre tract had first production on June 17, 1937, when the Mrs. Bess Johnson-Adams & Hale No. 1 well was brought in. Developed before well-spacing rules, this block is the most densely drilled tract in the world, with 24 wells on 10 lots owned by six different operators. This acre has produced over two and a half million barrels of crude oil; selling at $1.10 to $3.25 a barrel, it has brought more than five and a half million dollars. A forest of steel derricks for many years stood over the more than 1,000 wells in downtown Kilgore, marking the greatest concentration of oil wells in the history of the world. Dozens of these derricks still dot city's internationally famous skyline. Since 1930, the East Texas oil field has produced nearly four billion barrels of oil. It now has more than 17,000 producing wells, and geologists predict a future of at least 45 years for this "granddaddy of oil fields." Its development has attracted to the area many diversified industries and a progressive citizenship with a high degree of civic pride. (Boomtown Story)


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