Colorado County Historical Markers

Texas Independence Trail Region
Markers (click on a topic to jump to that section).
Alley Log Cabin and Antique Tool Museum | Abram Alley Log Cabin | Alleyton | Alleyton, C.S.A. | Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of the American Declaration of Independence | Beason's (Beeson's) Crossing | Borden, John Pettit | Colorado County | Colorado County Courthouse | Colorado County, City of Columbus | Navigation of the Colorado River | City of Columbus | Columbus Oak | Columbus Tap Railway | District Court Tree | Town of Eagle Lake | Heritage Society Museum of Weimar | Keith-Traylor Museum | Menefee, William | Nada | Oakland | Old Osage | Prairie Edge Museum | Sesma, Site of the Camp of Gen. Joaquin Ramirez y | Rangers of Austin's Colony | Stage Lines Through Columbus
Uncommemorated Sites (click on a topic to jump to that section).
Captain's Jesse Burnman and Amos Rawls | John Jackson Tumlinson, Jr., and his brother Joseph

Museums

Alley Log Cabin and Antique Tool Museum

Museum Name: Alley Log Cabin and Antique Tool Museum (Property of Magnolia Homes Tour, Inc)
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 817
City: Columbus
Zip Code: 78934
Street Address: 1230 Bowie St
Area Code: 409
Phone: 732-5135
County: Colorado
Types of Exhibits/Collections: Photos, Historical, Local/Pioneer History

Abram Alley Log Cabin

Marker Title: Abram Alley Log Cabin
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1977
Marker Location: Bowie St., between Spring & Washington Sts.
Marker Text: In the 1820s, Abram Alley (d. 1862) came from Missouri to join his brothers in Stephen F. Austin's "Old 300" Colony. He settled a few miles south of here on the east side of the Colorado, and in 1835 married Nancy Millar (1817 - 1893), of another pioneer family. During the Texas War for Independence, he went to the aid of settlers fleeing Santa Anna in the "Runaway Scrape," and his own home was burned. Late in 1836 he returned and built this cabin of oak logs. Here the Alleys raised two daughters and three sons and often entertained friends and travelers. RTHL-1977

Alleyton

Marker Title: Alleyton
City: Alleyton
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: In Alleyton at the intersection of Center & Alleyton Rds., at southern edge of town (S. Side of Alleyton Rd.)
Marker Text: Oldest permanent settlement and once largest town in Colorado County. Established by the pioneer Alley family (Willliam, John, Rawson, Thomas and Abraham), all members of Austin's original 300 settlers. Terminus of the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railroad, 1860-1867

Alleyton, C.S.A.

Marker Title: Alleyton, C.S.A.
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: On FM 102, 2/10 mile south of IH-10 about four miles E of Columbus.
Marker Text: Born as War clouds gathered. Alleyton was a key point on the supply line of the Confederate States of American during the Civil War. It was both beginning and end of the cotton road leading to the Confederacy's back door on the Rio Grande River. By 1860 the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railroad extended from Harrisburg, near Houston. To Alleyton. As a railhead Alleyton became the site of an important cotton station and Quartermaster Depot during the War. Cotton came here from north and east Texas. From Louisiana, and from Arkansas on the Rails of the B.B.B. & C. and via wagon roads. From Alleyton the South's most precious trading commodity was carried to a point on the Colorado River across from Columbus. A point on the Colorado River across from Columbus. It was then ferried across for the start of a long, tortuous journey to the Rio Grande. The bales of cotton were hauled on big-bedded wagons and high-wheeled Mexican carts, pulled by mules, horses or oxen. The Cotton Road led to Goliad, San Patricio, the King Ranch and finally to Brownsville. Shreds of white fluff on bush and cactus marked the trail of the wagon trains. From Brownsville the cotton was taken across the river to Matamoros, Mexico and subsequently placed on board ships bound for Europe. As the only major gap in the Federal naval blockade of the Confederacy, neutral Matamoros was the place of exchange for outgoing cotton and imported munitions, clothing and medicine. When Federal forces took Vicksburg in 1863 the Mississippi River was sealed off and the Confederacy divided. The Texas-Mexico trade routes became the South's major military supply lines in the trans-Mississippi west. Alleyton was a main destination of the wagon trains returning from the Rio Grande. Rifles, swords, shirts, pants, alum, arrowroot and other items needed by soldier and civilian in the harried Confederacy were unloaded here for new destinations.

Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of the American Declaration of Independence

Marker Title: Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration of the American Declaration of Independence
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1976
Marker Location: Spring and Bowie St. Columbus
Marker Text: Most of the "Old Three Hundred" settlers in Stephen F. Austin's first Texas Colony in the early 1820s came from the United States and were proud of their Anglo-America Heritage. Austin discouraged any display of American loyalties which might anger the Mexican authorities or violate colonization laws. Many customs persisted, however, including observance of July Fourth as American Independence Day. On July 4, 1826, settlers around Beason's Crossing, nucleus of the present town of Columbus, planned a barbecue to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the American Declaration of Independence. No doubt, many colonists traveled long distances for this important gathering. West of the Colorado River in Green DeWittt's Colony, a small group set out from Gonzales on July 2 to attend the barbecue at Beason's. While camped for the night, they were attacked by Indians but managed to escape. Returning to Gonzales, they found their homes plundered and one man killed. The other settlers were visiting at a nearby cabin and escaped the Indian raid. The survivors then proceeded to the safety of older settlements along the the Colorado. (1976)

Beason's (Beeson's) Crossing

Marker Title: Beason's (Beeson's) Crossing
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1993
Marker Location: Just E. of the E. River Bridge at Columbus on S. Side of Hwy 90 in Beason's Park, Columbus.
Marker Text: Benjamin Beason, one of Stephen F. Austin's original 300 colonists, settled by a widely used Colorado River crossing near here in 1822. He and his wife Elizabeth proceeded to build a large home (also used as an inn) and established a gristmill, sawmill, gin,and ferry operation at the crossing. His residence and business operations and a scattering of homesteads in the area formed a settlement known as Beason's Crossing. In the early spring of 1836 Beason found his home, family, and complex of commercial buildings in the perilous position in between Sam Houston's Army, camped on the east bank of the Colorado River opposite Beason's crossing, and a Mexican Army led by General Juaquin Ramirez Y Sesma fast approaching from the west. Houston had chosen this site to camp because of its strategic location at the edge of the most populous part of Texas. With his 1500 troops in position, Houston is said to have declared, "on the Colorado I make my stand." Notwithstanding this bold declaration, Houston unexpectedly removed his Army to the Brazos River on March 26th. Beason's crossing was subsequently burned to the ground by a detachment of Houston's Army scarcely hours before the arrival of Sesma's Army. Sam Houston Bicentennial 1793-1993

John Pettit Borden

Marker Title: John Pettit Borden
City: Weimar
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Marker Text: (December 30, 1812 - November 12, 1890) Born in New York. Moved to Texas 1829. Settled in Stephen F. Austin's second colony in 1832. In Texas Revolution, fought at Battle of San Jacinto in 1836. Helped lay out town of Houston same year. At 24 became first Commissioner of Texas General Land Office. Later practiced law and served as county judge. He was a surveyor before moving, in 1866, to Harvey's Creek (4 mi. E). Married twice. Had 9 children by second wife Mary (Hatch).

Colorado County

Marker Title: Colorado County
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: 1/2 mile N. of Colorado River on Business 71 at FM 109 turnoff, Columbus.
Marker Text: The river traversing the region was called "Colorado" (Red) by Spanish explorers who mistook it for the reddish Brazos. From the river, the county took its name; Columbus, the county seat.

Colorado County Courthouse

Marker Title: Colorado County Courthouse
Address: Courthouse Square
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Marker Text: This classic revival building--erected in 1890-1891 in form of a Greek cross--is now one of 28 oldest existing courthouses in Texas' 254 counties. Contractors Martin, Byrne & Johnson built the structure of brick and Belton stone. Local Masonic Lodge laid cornerstone. In 1909 a tornado severely damaged building. Large bell in cupola-clock tower fell 120 feet and was completely buried in the earth. $15-a-month job of clock-winder was subsequently canceled. During repairs, present copper dome was added. In 1939 entire building was remodeled. RTHL-1969

Colorado County, City of Columbus

Marker Title: Colorado County, City of Columbus
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: Courthouse grounds, Columbus.
Marker Text: Site of projected capitol of Stephen F. Austin's colony, 1823. First settlement at this point shown on Stephen F. Austin's map of 1835 as Montezuma. The municipality of Colorado was created by the provisional government of Texas January 11, 1836 and the town of Columbus ordered laid out as the seat of government. On March 17, 1836 the county of Colorado was created; in 1837, it was organized. Columbus, the county seat, was incorporated June 5, 1837. As railroad terminal, from 1869 to 1873, Columbus was an important trading center for a large territory to the west. In memory of: The pioneer families of Burnam, Gilleland, Cummins, Fisher DeWees, Kuykendall and Tumlinson. J.W.E. Wallace and his company who defended Gonzales October 2, 1835. William D. Lacey, Will Menefee signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Leander Beason, John P. Borden, David Cole, Stephen T. Foley, George W. Gardner, S. Joseph Garwood, Basil G. Ijams, Dr. James D. Jennings, Alfred Kelso, Amos D. Kenyon, Daniel Miller, James Nelson, Mitchell Putnam, Dempsey Pace, William Pace, Washington H. Secrest, Maxwell Steel, Robert Stevenson, Spencer B. Townsend, William Waters, Leroy Wilkinson; San Jacinto veterans who lived in this county prior to or after the Texas Revolution. Col. John C. Upton, Major John S. Shropshire, Major J.S. West, Capt. P.J. Oakes, Capt. James D. Roberdeau, Capt. R.V. Cook; Confederate officers. The following citizens of distinction have resided in Colorado County: Jones Rivers, jurist; Dr. Lawrence Washington, Gail Borden, Matthew Stanley Quay, Senator for Pennsylvania; Chas. Nagel, cabinet minister under Taft; Wells Thompson, Lieutenant Governor of Texas; George McCormick, State Attorney General and co-writer of the present State Constitution; Geo. W. Smith, member of Supreme Court of Texas.

Navigation of the Colorado River

Marker Title: Navigation of the Colorado River
City: Eagle Lake
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Marker Location: in roadside park, U.S. 290A, 2 miles W. of Eagle Lake.
Marker Text: Because overland travel in early Texas was an enterprise often fraught with hardship, frustration, and danger, many individuals looked to rivers for a solution to the problem. From 1829 to the Civil War, optimistic Texans attempted to ply the area's long, meandering rivers, but met repeated disappointment. The most serious drawback to navigation of the Colorado was "the raft." This was a series of timber masses--some floating, some sunken--choking off the river about 10-25 miles above its mouth. The length was variously given as 3-8 miles. In spite of this, the keelboat "David Crockett" became the first boat to navigate the river, in 1838. After that, flatboats brought cotton, hides, lumber, and pecans down as far as the raft, but there the goods had to be taken off and hauled laboriously by wagon to Matagorda. The Republic of Texas incorporated 2 companies to clear the river and the State authorized the construction of a new channel around the raft, but the obstruction remained an impediment and hazard. Although shallow-draft boats managed occasional trips, the more-efficient railroads eventually took away much business. After the Civil War, Texas Rivers ceased to be an important factor in transportation.

City of Columbus

Marker Title: City of Columbus
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1973
Marker Location: Spring & Bowie Sts., Columbus.
Marker Text: Oldest surveyed and platted Anglo-American town in Texas. About Christmas, 1821, Robert and Joseph Kuykendall and Daniel Gilleland settled at this place--in vicinity of old Indian campgrounds on Mexico-to-Sabine River Trail. Stephen F. Austin had noted advantages of this spot earlier. In 1823 he and the Baron de Bastrop surveyed land here. Although they relocated the capital, this site remained a hamlet with a grist mill, ferry, other improvements. Soon known as Beason's, community had as settlers, along with the first three men, many others of the "Old 300": Abram, John, Rawson, Thomas V., and William Alley; Benjamin Beason, Caleb R. Botick, David Bright, Robert Brotherton, James Cummins, W. B. DeWees, Thomas Kuykendall, James McNair, James Nelson, Gabriel Strawn Snyder; Elizabeth, James, and John Tumlinson; Nathaniel Whiting, and possibly others. In 1824, Milton Cook opened a tavern where many Texans stopped over the years. By 1835, village had been named. In Texas War for Independence, buildings here were burned by the Texas Army, to keep them out of the hands of Santa Anna. But after the victory at San Jacinto on April 21, 1836, Columbus rose again. W.B. DeWees and J. W.E. Wallace platted the new townsite in 1837.

Columbus Oak

Marker Title: Columbus Oak
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: Courthouse Square, Columbus
Marker Text: Beneath this tree the first Court of the Third Judicial District of The Republic of Texas was held April, 1837 by Judge Robert M. Williamson ("Three Legged Willie").

Columbus Tap Railway

Marker Title: Columbus Tap Railway
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1973
Marker Location: Travis & Crockett Sts., Columbus.
Marker Text: The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos & Colorado--first railway built in Texas--in the 1850s mapped its route from Houston to Austin through Alleyton (3 mi. E), bypassing Columbus. To retain their town's supremacy in its trade area, Columbus citizens projected a railway of their own, to tap into the B.B.B. & C., at Alleyton. Organizers were a A. M. Campbell, John G. Louge, George W. Smith, C. W. Tait, Isam Tooke, and J. W. E. Wallace--influential planters, merchants, physicians, and judges. Columbus Tap Railway was chartered on Feb. 2, 1860. John G. Logue became president, soon succeeded by E. P. Whitfield. C. W. Tait was treasurer; C. Windrow, clerk. Bonds were issued and construction plans made. The Civil War, beginning in 1861, disrupted plans. Although the railway proved to be needed by the Confederate Army, and Gen. J. B. Magruder ordered (1863) impressment of 100 men to work on its roadbed, the project failed to reach completion in the war years. After war ended in 1865, the line was built to the river, where ferry gave the city rail service. Later the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio (corporate successor of the B.B.B. & C. and the Columbus Tap) ran its line from Columbus to San Antonio. In 1880s this became part of the Southern Pacific System.

District Court Tree

Marker Title: District Court Tree
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Marker Location: Travis & Walnut Sts., Columbus on Courthouse Square.
Marker Text: In 1837 this Oak sheltered Texas jurors. Courthouse was unfinished because logs coming down-river for building had swept past in strong current. R. M. Williamson, presiding, was called "Three-Legged Willie" due to appearance: He had good leg, crippled leg, and wooden leg.

Town of Eagle Lake

Marker Title: Town of Eagle Lake
City: Eagle Lake
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: Main and McCarty Sts., Eagle Lake
Marker Text: Named for lake where in 1821 exploring party of Stephen F. Austin killed an eagle. In 1851 resident Gamaliel Good started a Houston-to-San Antonio Stage line with lakeside headquarters. In 1856, with D. W. C. Harris, Good platted Eagle Lake townsite. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos & Colorado Railroad reached here in 1859. Early a cattle and farm market; after 1898 had rice production; later ranked as oil center and shipper of sand and gravel. Now fishing and goose hunting mecca. Home town of Gen. H. H. Johnson (born in 1895), military governor of Rome, Italy in the 1940.

Heritage Society Museum of Weimar

Museum Name: The Heritage Society Museum of Weimar
Street Address: 125 East Main Street
City: Weimar
Zip Code: 78962
Area Code: 409
Phone: 725-8203
County: Colorado
Types of Exhibits/Collections: Military, Archeology, Photos, Historical, Local/Pioneer History, Archives.

Keith-Traylor Museum

Museum Name: Keith-Traylor Museum
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 817
City: Columbus
Zip Code: 78934
Street Address: 808 Live Oak Street
Area Code: 409
Phone: 732-5135
County: Colorado
Types of Exhibits/Collections: Photos, Historical, Local/Pioneer History

William Menefee

Marker Title: William Menefee
City: Colombus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1995
Marker Location: Courthouse grounds, Columbus
Marker Text: William L. Menefee, born ca. 1796 in Knox County, Tennessee, served in the Tennessee Militia in the War of 1812. He studied law and was admitted to the bar sometime prior to when he moved to Alabama. In 1830 he and his wife Agnes (Sutherland) and their seven children moved to Jackson County, Texas. Menefee became involved in Texas' affairs with Mexico and represented Lavaca County as a delegate to the conventions of 1832 and 1833. In 1835 he represented Austin municipality at the consultation at San Felipe and later served as a member of the general council of the provisional government of Texas. Menefee was elected Colorado municipality's first chief justice in 1836. On March 2, 1836, he was among the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. In late 1836 Menefee was appointed Colorado County's first county judge by Republic of Texas President Sam Houston. Elected to the Texas House of Representatives in 1837, he was one of five congressmen chosen to select the site for the Texas Capitol. An unsuccessful candidate for the Republic of Texas vice-presidency in 1841, he later served as Fayette County's state representative from 1853 to 1857. He died on October 29, 1875, and is buried in the Texas State Cemetery in Austin.

Nada

Marker Title: Nada
City: Nada
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1990
Marker Location: In Nada, on the grounds of St. Mary's Parish 1/8 mile E. off SH 71.
Marker Text: Located on land once included in Stephen F. Austin's colony, the community of Nada was first settled in the 1880s by German and Czech immigrants. John William Schoellman brought his family here from nearby Frelsburg in 1881. He built the area's first store, which was operated by his son, John Henry Schoellmann. Other early settlers included the families of Joseph Laby, Florian Frnka, Gerhard Eggemeyer, Ernest Krenk, Joseph Schneider, and Diedrich Frels. A public school, known as Red Bluff, opened in 1883. In 1889 the Schoellmann and Laby families donated land for a Catholic Church and Parochial School. The Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary was built in 1896 and has served as a center of community activities since that time. A U.S. post office was established in 1894 with William Engbrock as postmaster and the town was named Nada. By 1904 the community boasted homes, schools, stores, a church, cotton gin, and dance hall. Nada has remained an agricultural community. Many descendants of pioneer German and Czech settlers continue to live in the area.

Oakland

Marker Title: Oakland
City: Oakland
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1988
Marker Location: FM 532, Oakland From Wiermer, take FM 55 S. about 5 1/2 miles to FM 532, go W. on FM 532 to Oakland .
Marker Text: Originally known as Prairie Point, a town was platted at this site in 1856 by A.C. Hereford. A native of Virginia, Hereford was a veteran of the Mexican War who had arrived in this area in the early 1850s. Located on part of the original James Bowie Survey, the community is the second oldest in Colorado County. When Hereford applied for a post office for Prairie Point in 1861, his request was denied because of the settlement's close proximity to an existing post office on the plantation of Amasa Turner (1800-1877). Turner agreed to relocate his post office to Prairie Point upon the condition that its name, Oakland, be retained. The town was thereafter known as Oakland. Oakland was a stop on the Old Gonzales Road, an important early route form San Felipe to Gonzales. As settlement in the town increased, a school was established in 1859. Soon churches, stores, business, and fraternal organizations were also in operation. The town became a major trading and social center for the farm families of western Colorado County. The population of Oakland began to decline in the 1870s when the railroad bypassed the community in favor of Weimar.

Old Osage

Marker Title: Old Osage
City: Weimar
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: From Weimar take US 90 about 1-1/2 miles to CR 201, go north on 201 about 3 miles to CR 208, go north about 1 mile to marker (at intersection of CR 208 and CR 205).
Marker Text: Site of 1820 trading post of Jesse Burnam. His ferry on the Colorado River helped Gen. Sam Houston reach San Jacinto, 1836. To cut off Santa Anna, Houston then burned post and ferry. Town started in 1850s was named for Osage orange trees. In 1861, Civil War recruiting center. Furnished most of Co. A, 5th Texas Cav., Green's Brigade. This park, on land deeded by Edward Austin for school and churches, includes cemetery and graves of many Civil War veterans. Was also burial site, Wm. B. Scates, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence.

Prairie Edge Museum

Museum Name: Prairie Edge Museum
Street Address: 408 East Main St.
City: Eagle Lake
Zip Code: 77434
Area Code: 409
Phone: 234-7442
County: Colorado
Types of Exhibits/Collections: Natural History, Archeology, Historical, Local/Pioneer History.

Site of the Camp of Gen. Joaquin Ramirez y Sesma

Marker Title: Site of the Camp of Gen. Joaquin Ramirez y Sesma
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: just west of Columbus city limits, on Hwy. 90 access road (S.side) at Milentz St.
Marker Text: March 20-26, 1836, of one division of General Santa Anna's Army under the command of General Joaquin Ramirez Sesma. It crossed the Colorado at Atascosita Ford, eight miles below Columbus.

Rangers of Austin's Colony

Marker Title: The Rangers of Austin's Colony
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 1986
Marker Location: Courthouse Square, Columbus
Marker Text: By March 1822, Stephen F. Austin had attracted about 150 colonists to Texas. The pioneers faced many hardships, including concern for their protection form Indians along the Colorado and Brazos rivers. In December of that year, Trespalacios, the Mexican governor, divided the colony into two districts, each having an alcalde to preside over matters of local administration and captain to handle protection of the colonists. In 1823, after several Indian attacks on members of Austin's colony, Captain Robert Kuykendall and Alcalde John Tumlinson of the Colorado District requested permission form Tresplacios to raise a company to protect the colonists. Ten men were recruited to serve under the command of Moses Morrison. When Stephen F. Austin returned from Mexico City in August 1823, he found the colony still plagued by Indian disturbances and announced that he would employ ten additional men, at his own expense, to serve as "Rangers" for the common defense. Although the law enforcement group known as the Texas Rangers was not formally organized until 1835, the "Rangers" of Austin's Colony are the earliest recorded force of this type raised in Texas and served as a model for the later formation of the Texas Rangers. Texas Sesquicentennial 1836 - 1986

Stage Lines Through Columbus

Marker Title: Stage Lines Through Columbus
City: Columbus
County: Colorado
Year Marker Erected: 2002
Marker Location: 316 Spring Street
Marker Text: Stage Lines Through Columbus Nineteenth-century stagecoach operations in Texas were closely tied to mail delivery, and contracts with the U.S. Postal Service more often than not made the transportation of passengers and freight by stage economically feasible. As an early community on the transportation routes between Houston and San Antonio and between Houston and Austin, Columbus saw many stage lines travel its streets in the years between Texas Independence and the end of the Civil War. The Brown and Tarbox Stage Service was underway by 1847, carrying mail from Houston to San Antonio, passing through Columbus. Prominent stagecoach operators Sawyer and Risher (later Risher and Hall) utilized several lines that began in Eagle Lake and traveled through Columbus to San Antonio, Austin and Wharton. By November 1861, the Confederate States Mail Service replaced U.S. mail operations in Texas, and the stage lines continued to carry this mail as well. Traffic also developed between the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado railroad terminus at nearby Alleyton and the cotton shipping points of Brownsville and Matamoros. Stages from Brownsville connected with stage lines from Corpus Christi, Goliad and Victoria to San Antonio via Columbus. After the Civil War, Risher and Hall resumed operations of their stage lines to San Antonio, but the coming of the railroad soon signaled the end of the stagecoach era in this part of Texas. As a stop on many of the stage routes, Columbus played a significant role in this early transportation network. (2002)

Captain's Jesse Burnman and Amos Rawls

The following excerpt is from the book, Savage Frontier, by Stephen L. Moore:

In June 1824 Austin reorganized his militia into five companies. Soon thereafter, Captains Jesse Burnam and Amos Rawls fought nine Karankawa Indians on the Colorado River, killing eight. Austin also sent Captain Aylett C. Buckner with a party of volunteers to the Waco Indian village to make a treaty with the Waco, Tawakoni, and Towash Indians.

John Jackson Tumlinson, Jr., and his brother Joseph

The following excerpt is from the book, Savage Frontier, by Stephen L. Moore:

John Jackson Tumlinson's son, John Jackson Tumlinson Jr., later a respected ranger captain, collected a posse and led them against a band of thirteen Huaco (Waco) Indians who had camped above the present town of Columbus. The posse leader's teenage brother, Joseph Tumlinson, acted as a scout for this unit and managed to kill the first Indian when the Texans surprised the Waco camp. Captain Tumlinson's posse killed all but one of the Indians.


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