Elm Creek/The Big Raid in Young County During October of 1864
Harmonson Ranch Historical Marker
Marker Title: Harmonson Ranch
Indian Raid on Elm Creek, C. S. A. Historical Marker
Marker Title: Indian Raid on Elm Creek, C. S. A
To describe a gigantic Indian raid, when a large number of blood-thirsty warriors break into smaller bands and each division simultaneously depredated upon a frontier community, in many respects, is not unlike attempting to describe a huge circus having five or six rings showing at the same time. Too, another complication arises from the fact that each individual naturally views an occurrence of this kind directly from his or her own angle. But we shall attempt to give a logical presentation of this raid, which shook the entire frontier, and one of the largest ever made in West Texas. During the latter days of 1864 the people were suffering from the effects of a long and bitter war. Furthermore the year brought one of the most devastating draughts ever witnessed in West Texas. And Indian depredations had made life miserable. So the despondent citizens were already living in despair.
Following these prevailing conditions, October 13th, 1864, the wild hordes of the plains made one of the worst onslaughts that ever occurred along the West Texas frontier.
The savages made one of their first appearances when they assaulted Peter Harmison and son, Perry, who only about three weeks previously narrowly escaped death when Will R. Peveler and State Cox received their mortal wounds. Harmison and his son hastily retreated into the thick timber. But a surprising large number of savages soon had them surrounded.
After these pioneer citizens made a stand, Perry crawled to the edge of the brush, and with his six-shooting rifle, took particular aim at the brass buttons on the army shirt of a certain Indian, who assumed the role of leader or chief. When Harmison fired this Indian fell dead from his steed. The proof of Perry's good marksmanship was discovered three days later when the place of burial of this particular Indian was found. After this chieftain fell, the other savages withdrew. But took Peter Harmison's horse, six-shooter, which was buckled to his saddle, and a new jeans coat, Mrs. Harmison had recently made. The horse had been wounded before the Judge and his son reached the timber. Consequently, when Mr. Harmison stepped from his saddle, his steed ran away with his coat and pistol. Judge Harmison, however held to his double-barrel gun.
During this episode, an Indian about sixty yards away fired at Peter Harmison, who was the first Chief Justice, or County Judge, of Young County. The ball struck the barrel of his gun, and then passed through his hand. It was this Indian that afforded the splendid target for Perry Harmison. After the Indians were gone, Peter Harmison and his son, Perry, mounted the latter's horse, and hurried to Fort Murray.
By this time it was discovered, not only at Fort Murray, but elsewhere that a large number of Indians, variously estimated from 300 to 1000 in number, were storming and destroying the Young County settlement, particularly along Elm creek. The citizens dispatched runners to the various ranches, and in a short time, the settlements of the western part of Young County were ablaze with excitement. The large number of hostile Indians, in many instances, caused the hysterical pioneers to leave their homes and seek shelter among the cliffs and in the timber. It was not a question of whipping the Indians or driving them away, but a struggle for existence.
Either the same Indians or a different division from those that assaulted Peter Harmison and his son, appeared at the Fitzpatrick Ranch, which was about nine miles west of the present town of Newcastle. At the time, Mrs. Elizabeth (Carter) Fitzpatrick; her son, Joe Carter; her widowed daughter, Mrs. Susan Durgan, and her two little girls, Lottie and Milie Durgan, four and six years old respectively; and Negro Brit's Johnson's wife, Mary Johnson, and their two small boys and girl, were at the Fitzpatrick ranch.
Here, again the mysterious, red-headed man made his appearance. When Mrs. Susan Durgan picked up a gun, this red-headed man told her to put it down, or she would be shot. She refused and was killed. Two Indians caught one of Negro Brit's boys named Jim, and each seemed to want him. But when neither Indian relinquished the boy to the other, he was knocked in the head and killed. So Mrs. Susan Durgan and Negro Brit's boy now lay dead on the ground. Mrs. Elizabeth Fitzpatrick and her son, Joe Carter, her two surviving children were made Indian captives. But Mrs. Elizabeth Fitzpatrick refused to go with the Indians. When she did, the mysterious red-headed man informed her that she must go or be killed. She then consented to go with the Indians.
About the time, or shortly after the Indians left the Fitzpatrick Ranch, these same savages, or a different band, went east a short distance, here from a high ridge, they could see Joel Myers, hunting a yoke of steers. In a short time he was surrounded by the savages, killed, scalped and stripped. His death occurred not far from the mouth of Elm creek.
The Indians then returned to the Fitzpatrick ranch, and after stealing everything that apparently suited their fancy, made a dash for other frontier homes.
With their plunder and white captives, the Indians went to the Hamby Ranch, where Tom Hamby and his son, P. K. Hamby, and T. J. Wilson, together with their families, made their home. But these frontier citizens were already aware of the approaching savages. So when the Indians arrived at their home it was deserted.
Tom Hamby, and son, P. K. Hamby, and T. J. (Dock) Wilson, hid their families about 250 yards southwest of the houses, in a rock cave. These heroic frontiersmen then mounted their steeds, and hurried to the home of Wm. Bragg and warned the families there to leave their home and hide in the rocks, as their families had been hidden. From Wm. Bragg's home, they swiftly rode to the ranch of H. G. Williams, and then hurried to the home of Geo. Bragg to warn them the Comanches were coming, and crushing everything in their path. And here at the George Bragg Ranch, where three or four families had "forted up," occurred the hardest fighting.
When Tom and P. K. Hamby, and T. J. (Dock) Wilson, reached the Bragg ranch, the members of the various families were thrown in the same house. The following people were then present: Tom Hamby and son, P. K. Hamby, T. J. (Dock) Wilson, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Bragg, Mrs. Mason Brag, Mrs. Mart Bragg, Billy, Margaret and Sabil Bragg, who were small children; also Eliza and -- Bragg (Colored), and a negro woman named Frank.
In a short time, many Indians surrounded the house, which was constructed in accordance with frontier fashion, out of pickets, in the ground. Here was fought one of the most desperate fights ever fought on the West Texas frontier. The women and children were ordered under the bed. The very few male frontiersmen defended as best they could, the little picket pioneer cabin, which was stormed by approximately two hundred savages, hideously decorated for war. T. J. Wilson received a mortal wound early in the fight, and said, "Bragg, I am a dead man."
Before they could place him on the bed, life had left him, and he numbered among the immortals.
Shortly afterwards, Geo. Bragg received an arrow wound in the chest, and Tom Hamby, two wounds in the shoulder, so close together they could have been covered with a silver dollar. Then with one man killed, and two severely wounded, Thornton Hamby was the only one left to do the fighting. It now began to appear the occupants of this little frontier home were doomed to die.
About this time, a very huge Indian seized a mattock, lying in the yard, and began to dig up the pickets of the little frontier cabin, just at the point where the women and children were concealed under the bed. P. K. Hamby's attention was called to the maneuvers of this hideously painted savage. So Hamby lay on the bed, pushed the point of his pistol through the opening between two pickets, at a point only a few feet from the Indian's head, and when he fired, the huge Indian was instantly killed. This caused his companions to be more cautious.
In cases of extreme emergency, it so often happens that the occurrence of some miraculous thing turns the tide and saves the day. It so happened, while this fight was furiously raging. Lt. N. Carson, and fourteen men, were having a very desperate battle with another division of the Indians, some distance away, and the report of their guns together with the exciting noise of the screaming savages, decoyed most of the barbarians from the Bragg ranch. Nevertheless, according to reports, several savages remained, and the Geo. Bragg Ranch was stormed until late in the evening.
The action of Lt. N. Carson and his men is vividly disclosed by the following reports which the author found among old Confederate records, and so far as we know, have never before been published.
Headquarters Border Regiment,
Colonel: Inclosed please find a letter from Lieutenant Carson, reporting the late Indian raid on the Brazos, sixteen miles above Fort Belknap. I learn from one of the men who was in the fight that the Indians struck the settlement six miles below their camps and killed several families. The Indians attacked five men in a house, but left when they heard the firing of the guns of Lt. Carson's men, who were then attacking the main body. He also stated they discovered a white man in their front. The Indians left in a northwest direction. The courier states that about 200 or 300 men followed their trail, though the Indians were one day ahead of the foremost party and I am fearful they are too far behind to overtake them as the Indians are well mounted. They will, no doubt, strike at some other point.
I am, Colonel, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
"Fort Belknap, October 16th, 1864.
Colonel: The Indians came into the settlements on Elm on the 13th. I was camped thirteen miles west of Belknap. Fields and J. Jones charged two Indians and cut them off from their horses, and judging from their maneuvers there were more Indians near. J. Jones came two miles to camp to get assistance. I took fourteen men and started in pursuit, leaving six men in camp. When I reached a high point I discovered the two, and ran them one mile and a half into Elm Flats, where I discovered a large body of some 300, formed in a semi-circle and almost concealed within fifty yards of me.
While I was forming my men in line the Indians were advancing and firing on me. I ordered my men to fall back some 100 yards to gain a better position, in slow order, to save the men that were on weak horses, fighting them from one position to another until five of my brave men were killed. I received two flesh wounds. We killed some seven or eight Indians, and saw a number fall. The retreat was continued some one-quarter of a mile to McCoy's house, where two women were taken behind the men, and I gathered my men and horses that were at camp and crossed over to Ft. Murray, one mile and a half. The Indians followed in hot pursuit, came up to McCoy's house, destroyed and carried off everything that was in it, then advanced on the camp, which was a half mile from the house. They took all the tents, blankets, and clothing that were left in camp, breaking up and destroying all the vessels belonging to the company, the boys saving but little of their clothing, and the most of them are now entirely destitute, having nothing left them, except what is on their backs. The names of the men killed are: J. Jones, Private Henry Snodgrass, Robert Neathrey, J. G. Walker, and Erastus Blue. These men fell fighting bravely, disputing, inch by inch, until shot from their horses, and yielded only with their lives. Samuel Brison's horse was shot from under him and lost. Henry McGuire's horse was wounded. J. Wallis', George Wimberly's, and my horse were slightly wounded. J. Buckingham was thrown from his horse, but made his escape to Fort Murray. Fields was shot through his pantaloons with an arrow across the thigh, grazing the skin. My men were cool, and acted with unexampled bravery As far as I have been able to gain information, there has been eleven citizens killed, seven women and children carried off, eleven houses robbed. It is estimated that there were 350 or 450 on the raid. Mr. Peveler, a citizen of Fort Murray, got on the top of his house with his spy-glass, counted 250 passing over the flats and by our horses. The Indians captured two of my mules. They were some one-half mile from camp and had no time to get them.
When the Indians had only been raiding a short time on Elm, one large division of the savages came in contact with Henry Wooten, whom they successfully cut away from Lt. Carson and his men, shortly before they were surrounded. Accounts differ concerning the given name of Mr. Wooten. In one instance he was called William, in another George, and in a third instance, he was referred to as Henry Wooten, and we are inclined to believe that the last name was correct. Nevertheless, Mr. Wooten started out to Belknap alone, and was pursued by a large number of savages who succeeded in killing his horse. When the Indians were dangerously close, Wooten, would draw his gun, and this, in each instance, caused the savages to fall back; when they did, Wooten advanced farther. During the exciting chase he lost his hat, so the savages scalped his horse, which had been killed and took the pony's ears, and Wooten's hat, and put each on the point of a spear, which they defiantly displayed in the presence of Hen. Wooten, who continued to make his retreat as rapidly as possible. Finally he was followed by only two savages. When this citizen waded through the water, about waist deep, in Elm creek, the two remaining Indians declined to cross, and they, too, turned back and joined the main division. Although he was then no longer pursued, Mr. Wooten hurried to the home of Rolland Johnson, and told them of the wild raid being made by the raging red men. Finally he reached old Fort Belknap and conveyed the news to the post. But some were inclined to discredit his statement. Nevertheless, Mr. Wooten was almost exhausted, his flesh torn by brush and brier, and his retreating trail almost blazed with bits of his clothing.
After Lt. Carson and his men reached Fort Murray, the citizens began immediately to be prepared as well as possible, for they expected the Indians to storm the citizens' fort sometime during the day.
France Peveler, Lewis Peveler, Champ Farris, Cole Dunken, Will Farris, and possibly one or two others left the plaza and hurried about one-half mile north for the purpose of bringing home some horses, but they were too late. A squad of savages were seen about three-fourths of a mile away, driving approximately forty head of stolen horses.
F. M. Peveler and Perry Harmison climbed on top of one of the cabins at Fort Murray and from here, they watched the maneuvers of the Indians through a telescope, during most of the evening. They counted 372 Indians in the distance, and no doubt there were many others that could not be seen.
An attack was expected at any moment, and the older men ordered that each and every vessel be filled with water, and as many bullets moulded as possible, and other necessary precautions taken, so that the citizens would be prepared in event they were besieged by the enemy. Consequently, everybody, young and old, went to work, and every precaution was taken to prevent a repetition of another massacre similar to that of Parker's fort in Limestone County, during 1836.
Mrs. McCoy had already been brought to the fort by Lt. Carson and his men. But while watching the Indians through a telescope, F. M. Peveler said to Perry Harmison that he could see the Indians killing James McCoy and his son, Miles. Considerable anxiety had been felt about them for some time. They agreed not to mention the fact to Mrs. McCoy, who was already in the fort. James McCoy and his son, who were massacred where Lt. Carson and his men were assaulted, were after rails to build a corral.
Several houses, vacated by the citizens, were robbed and wrecked by the thieving hordes of the plains, who loaded their plunder on pack horses. As the Indians moved across the western prairie, they presented a dreadful, yet spectacular scene.
At Fort Murray it was suggested that runners be sent to Fort Belknap for reinforcements. F. M. Peveler, who lived at the citizens fort, volunteered to go, and asked that he be furnished a companion. As a consequence, Fields, one of the rangers, stated that he would go. It was now late in the evening. The spies reported several fires burning in the distance, and an attack on the post was expected at daybreak of the following morning. There were only thirty-two able-bodied men at Fort Murray to fight such overwhelming numbers of savages. So F. M. Peveler and his companion hurried on to Fort Belknap for reinforcements. Every precaution was made to avoid the savages, nevertheless, they passed close to where Lt. Carson and his command came near being wiped out of existence. During their night ride, when their horses shied, they saw the form of some individual, which no doubt, was slain by the savages, for he was dead and stripped of clothing. When they reached Ft. Belknap, it was reported that Joel Myers was missing, and it was later disclosed the individual they passed proved to be Mr. Myers.
When Ft. Belknap was reached, similar precautions had been taken by the citizens there, to withstand an expected attack of the savages. But Ft. Belknap was considerably more isolated from the camp of the Comanches and their allied tribes. Nevertheless a high state of excitement prevailed at the post, for Mr. Wooten and one or two others had already reported the presence of the Indians. Most of the rangers were away, so there were only twenty-five men at Ft. Belknap and as a consequence, reinforcements for Ft. Murray were not available. A. C. (Chess) Tackett was then dispatched to Veale's Station in Parker County. Veale's Station was reached in record time. But young Tackett rode down six horses before he reached his destination. Again no reinforcements were found, so the news was conveyed to Major Quale and his command, who were stationed at Decatur.
Major Quale, in record time, dispatched 280 men to the rescue of the citizens in the western part of Young County. But when these troops were within fifteen miles of their destination, they learned the Indians had already gone.
During the memorable day of October 13, a runner was also sent from the Geo. Bragg ranch to Ft. Belknap for Dr. W. H. Robinson, the surgeon at the post. Dr. Robinson, however, felt it unsafe to venture out until the succeeding day. But when he reached the Bragg ranch, the arrow-point imbedded in Geo. Bragg's back was quickly removed and the patient recovered.
The many fires discovered late in the evening of October 13, were later found about six miles from Ft. Murray, and from authentic sources, we are told that approximately 700 bon-fires were built by the savages. Mrs. Fitzpatrick, who was carried away into captivity, and present when these fires were built, later said it was done by the savages as a strategic move to cause the citizens to think they were still near.
And according to the further statement of Mrs. Fitzpatrick, for three days and nights the Indians rode without stopping, towards the northwestern wilds, and toward their homes somewhere on the headwaters of the Canadian, Cimarron and Arkansas Rivers.
During this gigantic raid, eighteen people were killed and captured, and several others wounded; five rangers; Mrs. Susan Durgan, Joel Myers, Dock Wilson, James McCoy and son, Miles, and Negro Brit's boy, were known to have been killed. Mrs. Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, and son, Joe Carter; Mary Johnson, wife of Negro Brit Johnson, and her two children; Lottie and Millie Durgan, daughters of Mrs. Susan Durgan; were carried into captivity. After traveling many miles, little Joe Carter became sick while the savages were running from their shadows; and to avoid any delay, the poor little fellow was killed, and his body thrown away.
The news of this raid rapidly spread from ranch to ranch, village to village, and in a short time, it was known all over the northern frontier. Drouthy conditions prevailed in Texas at that time, and since this raid occurred during the dark days of the Civil War, its shocking effect was felt for many miles. As a consequence, many of the early frontiersmen bagged their few belongings, and started toward the east. This and other raids had a dynamic effect in decreasing the early population. The Census of western counties, readily discloses that in many instances, the population, during 1860, was considerably greater than in 1870.
Mrs. Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, her two granddaughters, Lottie and Millie Durgan, Mary Johnson, wife of Negro Brit Johnson, and their two children, were taken by the Indians somewhere on the headwaters of the Canadian, Cimarron, Arkansas and Red Rivers. Due to the heroic efforts of David White and Negro Brit Johnson, these people were finally returned to the frontier, but the details of their adventure will not be given at this time, for the story is related elsewhere.
But let us remember, and picture the heroic deeds of T. J. Wilson, Tom Hamby, P. K. Hamby, those patriotic and unselfish pioneers, who hid their families about 250 yards from their home, then dashed away to notify the various families the Indians were coming, and assisted them to hide in the cliffs, crags and thick timber. Had it not been for the thoughtfulness of these heroic men, no doubt, it would be necessary to relate an entirely different story. For many more women and children would have been murdered, and carried into captivity. No doubt, too, several men, whose lives were saved, would have been killed; and too, the Indians may have extended their foray further into the settlements. But this daring ride, not only necessitated these heroic frontiersmen abandoning their families during such critical hours, but also cost the life of T. J. (Dock) Wilson, and caused Tom Hamby to be seriously wounded. To them and others, today, a monument should be erected in Young County, and the author's pro rata part of the necessary fund is waiting.
Can we imagine the breathless anxiety of the mothers and children of Wm. Bragg's family, H. D. Williams family, Rolland Johnson's family, and others, as they lay concealed in the cliffs and thick timber during these trying hours, when hundreds of blood thirsty warriors were marching nearby. In some instances they were afraid a baby would cry or a dog bark, and disclose to the Indians their place of concealment.
Another thing of interest. H. D. Williams of Newcastle, today has a peace medal, approximately three inches in diameter, which his brother found after the Bragg ranch fight, and which was no doubt, dropped from the neck of a savage. On one side, this medal presents the picture of President James Monroe. On the reverse side, this token of peace presents a friendly handshake, and a cross of a tomahawk and peace-pipe. The complete history of this peace medal, of course, no one knows, but it is similar to others issued about that time. This particular medal bears the date of 1817. It reads, "James Monroe, President of the U.S.A., A.D. 1817." On the reverse side we find the words "Peace" and "Friendship" But it apparently does not disclose any information about any peace treaty made with the Indians during that year. The government records and reports disclose, however, that during 1817 the U. S. made treaties of peace with the Cherokee, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Delaware, Ottawa and Chippewas and other tribes.
Note: Before writing this section, the author personally interviewed: M. M. (France) Peveler mentioned in this section, Henry Williams and Mann Johnson, then boys about eight years of age, and who with their mothers, hid in thick timber.
The above story is from the book, The West Texas Frontier, by Joseph Carroll McConnell.
Elm Creek Raid-Second Story
The Indians had ripped open Mrs. Fitzpatricks feather bed and pillows and emptied the feathers out on the ground. A strong north wind blew them southward into the timber and foliage where they seemed to cover an acre or more, resembled snow in the midst of the green, and would have been very attractive had it not been for the sad sight at the house and the thought of the unfortunate inmates. The same thing had happened at Mr. Hambys about half a mile farther up the creek.
Goodnight arrived at the Hamby house, finding the Indians had taken everything except their clothes, he gave them a blanket. Hamby hid his family in a cliff and took his son to warn the Williams, who had already hidden in the brush. They then rushed on to Braggs house.
At the Bragg Ranch they made a fight, said Goodnight, and I dont think such a fight was ever made before or since. The Bragg house was an jacal-the timbers being set on end, daubed with mud between and covered with dirt-probably sixteen by twenty feet. Bragg had two marred sons besides his own family. Doc Wilson and wife were also there; in all four women and some children who lay under the beds on the dirt floor.
Old man Hamby took the only window in the house, and the others took care of the door. In front of the house was a small stockade of post-oak logs, and in front of the door, close to the stiles over the stockade, stood an oak tree. An Indian got behind it early in the fight, killed Wilson and severely wounded old man Bragg.
Hamby told me he tried to get a shot at the Indian for some time. Finally some Indians went down to the barn and got a pick and mattock, commenced to dig out the pickets which formed the house. Knowing they could not protect themselves if the Indians got another opening, young Hamby told old man Bragg to get on the bed, punch the mud out of the cracks in the side wall and fire down at random among them. Bragg had been shot in the breast and replied that he was dying, but luckily the arrow had struck a rib and followed it around to his back, where it was taken out next morning. Hamby bullyragged Bragg until he made the effort, and when he fired he hit an Indian right in the eye.
It seemed to have created quite a commotion among the diggers, and the Indian behind the tree leaned out to see around the corner. Hamby, who had been watching him closely, shot him with a double-barrel gun. He fell across the stile, and from appearances the shot had almost cut him in two, as the steps were a mass of blood when I got there, though the Indian had been dragged away.
Old man Hamby received several wounds in his arms and a slight cut on his breast, as it was necessary to expose himself a little in order to get good aim at the Indians. He must have done some splendid shooting, as the ground in a semicircle around the window was smeared with blood. Of course the Indians took away all their dead except the one of the stile, which they could not get, and it will never be known how many were killed, but their loss must have been considerable. A day or two later some of us followed the trail about forty miles, and we found several who had died of wounds.
The above story is from the book, Charles Goodnight-Cowman & Plainsman, by J. Evetts Haley.
Elm Creek Raid-Third Story
From Comanches, The Destruction of a People, by T.R. Fehrenbach:
J.W. Wilbarger, in his book Indian Depredations in Texas, provides another description of the Elm Creek Raid:
The following version is from the book Frontier Defense in the Civil War, by David Paul Smith: