Texas Fort-Overland Trail

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Museums

Historical Markers for the counties of Coke, Coleman, Concho, Crane, Crockett, Ector, Edwards, Glasscock, Howard, Irion, Midland, Mitchell, Nolan, Reagan, Real, Runnels, Schleicher, Sterling, Sutton, Taylor, Terrell, Tom Green and Upton.
Blood Trails
Map of Breckenridge Blood Trail
Map of Cross Plains Blood Trail
Map of Fort Griffin Fort Trail

Ghosts of the Cross Timbers Road Trip Map
Cross Timbers

Texas Fort-Overland Trail Map

18-Anglin, W. B. | 34-Bean Visitor Center, Judge Roy | 18-Brown-Dorsey Medallion Home | 23-Brown,W. H. | 2-Buffalo Trails | 15-Buffalo Wallow, Old | 7-Butterfield Mail and Stage Line | 15-Cable Tool Rig | 16-Caprock, The | 27-Castle Gap | 27-Castle Mountain | 10-Castle Peak | 42-Cattle Trail, Near Route of Famous | 22- Chadbourne, Fort | 22-Chadbourne, C. S. A., Fort | 35-Chihuahua Trail and Escondido Water Hole | 32-Chisum, John S.; Confederate Beef Contractor | 25-Colorado, C. S. A., Camp | 25-Colorado Guardhouse, Camp | 25-Colorado, Ruins of Camp | 2-Comanche Village Massacre | 15-Comanche War Trail | 35-Comstock-Ozona Stage Stand, Site of | 31-Concho, Fort | 31-Concho, Administration Building of the Fort | 31-Concho, Chapel and School House of Fort | 31-Concho National Historic Landmark, Fort | 31-Concho, Officers Quarters No. 2, Fort | 31-Concho, Officers Quarters No. 4, Fort | 31-Concho, Officers Quarters No. 8, Fort | 13-Coronado's Camp, In Vicinity of | 30-Coughlin's Stage Stand, Site of | 26-Crane County | 35-Crockett County | 35-Crockett County Museum | 35-Crockett, David | 15-Dawson Saloon, Site of the | 39-Dixie Settlement | 30-Dove Creek Battle | 30-Dove Creek Battlefield | 15-Ector County | 40-Edwards County | 20- Elizabeth, Camp | 17-Emigrant Trail | 31-Enlisted Men's Barracks, #5 | 31-Enlisted Men's Barracks, #6 | 19-Glasscock County | 35-Government Road, Old | 2-Green, William Marion | 29-Grierson Spring | 2-Heart of West Texas Museum | 1-Heritage Museum | 26-Horsehead Crossing, C. S. A. | 26-Horsehead Crossing of the Pecos | 35-Howard's Well | 11-Indian Battle, Near Site of | 9-Indian Fight, Vicinity of | 10-Indian Fight, Vicinity of | 22-Indian Rock Shelters | 30-Irion County | 30-Irion County Museum | 8-Jim Ned Creek | 27-King Mountain | 35-Lancaster, C. S. A., Fort | 35-Lancaster, Ruins of Fort | 36-Lancaster State Historical Park, Fort | 42-Leakey Cemetery | 17-LeGrande Survey | 15-Livery Stable and Wagon Yard, Site of Old | 4-Lone Wolf Mountain | 40-Mackenzie Trail | 18-Marcy Trail | 42-Marshall, C. S. A., Private Frank | 29-Martin-Castillo Expedition | 23-Maverick, Samuel | 42-McLauren, Catherine R. | 42-McLauren Massacre, Site of | 2-McMurray, Y. D. | 27-Mendoza Trail | 27-Mendoza Trail Museum | 18-Midland County | 18-Midland County Historical Museum | 18-Midland Man | 37-Miers Home Museum | 33-Mission San Clemente, Site of | 2-Mitchell County | 11-Mountain Pass Station | 12-Mulberry Canyon | 18-Museum of the Southwest | 6-Nolan County | 16-Odessa | 21-Panther Gap | 15-Parker House Ranching Heritage Museum | 24-Parker Cabin, Nancy | 15-Permian Basin | 27-Permian Basin, Early Humble Camp in | 23-Pickettville, Site of | 32-Pictograph Site in Texas, Largest | 39-Pioneer Coalsons, The | 6-Pioneer Museum | 15-Prairie Dog | 15-Presidential Museum | 24-Ranger Campsite | 24-Ranger Campsite Water Well | 24-Ranger Peak | 28-Rankin Museum | 29-Reagan County | 42-Real County | 42-Real County Historical Museum | 5-Renderbrook Ranch | 2-Ruddick Park | 23-San Clemente Mission | 41-San Lorenzo de La Santa Cruz | 3-Seven Wells | 40-Smith, Clinton LaFayette | 21-Southern Overland Mail, 1858-1861 | 22-Southern Overland Mail, Route of the | 20-Sterling County | 40-Stopping Place on the Fort Clark-Fort McKavett Military Road | 15-Sublett, Site of Homestead of William C. | 37-Sutton, Colonel John S. | 37-Sutton County | 31-Tenth Cavalry | 34-Terrell County | 34-Terrell County Memorial Museum | 34-Terrell, General Alexander W. | 38-Terrett Headquarters, Fort | 38-Terrett, Site of Fort | 30-Texas Civil War Indian Trouble | 28-Upton County | 28-Upton, John C. and His Brother, W. F. Upton | 14-Valley Creek Station | 41-Wood, Site of Camp

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More County Historical Markers and Museums

Coke County Historical Markers

Coke County Museums

Concho County Historical Markers

Runnels County Historical Markers

Schleicher County Historical Markers

Schleicher County Museums

Tom Green County Historical Markers

Tom Green Museums

Markers Related to Map

HOWARD COUNTY

1-Heritage Museum

Museum Name: Heritage Museum
Mailing Address: 510 Scurry
City: Big Spring
Zip Code: 79720
Area Code: 915
Phone: 267-8255
County: Howard

MITCHELL COUNTY

2-Markers in Colorado City

2-Buffalo Trails

Marker Title: Buffalo Trails
Address: Third and Chestnut St.
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: On ground behind Museum; Third and Chesnut, Colorado City.
Marker Text: These tracks, originally formed in soft dirt, are taken from an ancient buffalo trail which once guided herds to water at Champion Creek (6 miles south). Thousands of buffalo running single file pounded trails like this deep into the ground. When any one route became too deep, they started another, over the years making many side by side. Trails to grazing areas radiated from watering holes. Migratory trails stretched from the Rio Grande to Canada, usually following high, level ground in order to avoid winter snowdrifts and summer muck. Brothers J. Wright and John Mooar, Mitchell County businessmen and famous buffalo hunters, helped to kill thousands (including a white buffalo), 1870 to 1877. Chief product was the hide, but tongues, humps, and hams were also sold. Buffalo were so plentiful that in 1872 Mooar saw a northward migration of millions taking over 6 weeks to cross the Arkansas River. In their time, buffalo trails aided the Indians, who followed them to the animals feeding grounds. Later, explorers blazed new roads along them, and railroad engineers more than once used their exact routes. In this way, the buffalo trail was a key to the opening of transportation and settlement across the U.S. (1967)

2-Comanche Village Massacre

Marker Title: Comanche Village Massacre
Address: Houston and Sixth St.
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: Ruddick Park, Houston and Sixth, Colorado City.
Marker Text: In this vicinity on a bank of the Colorado October 21, 1840; A Comanche Indian village was completely destroyed and much stolen property recovered including 500 horses; 128 Indians were killed; 34 were captured; The expedition commanded by Colonel John Henry Moore; Consisted of 90 citizen volunteers; Mostly residents of Fayette County; Seventeen friendly Lipan Indians under Chiefs Castro and Flacu served as guides; No Texans were killed and but two wounded. (1936)

2-William Marion Green

Marker Title: William Marion Green
City Cemtery, Chestnut Street
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: City Cemetery, Colorado City east section of cemetery.
Marker Text: An orphan at age 7, Green learned self-reliance early. At 19, he joined the Texas Rangers. And at 20, he enlisted in Co. A of the Frontier Battalion. In 1874, his company helped capture members of John Wesley Hardin's gang who were raiding Comanche County; Green helped escort 7 of the outlaws to jail. He promoted the founding of the Texas Ex-Rangers Association in 1920, serving as Major of the group until his death. Recorded, 1968.

2-Heart of West Texas Museum

Museum Name: Heart of West Texas Museum
Mailing Address: 340 E 3rd
City: Colorado City
Zip Code: 79512
Area Code: 915
Phone: 728-8285
County: Mitchell

2-Y. D. McMurry

Marker Title: Y. D. McMurry
Address: Colorado City Cemetery
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: East section of city cemetery, Colorado City cemetery.
Marker Text: Born in Tennessee. Brought up in Fort Worth. In 1882 joined Co. B, Frontier Battalion, Texas Rangers, under a Brother, Capt. Sam McMurry--then enforcing law in Colorado City area. Y.D. McMurry, Mitchell County Sheriff 1892-1898, was one of captors of notorious murderer and train robber Bill Cooke. McMurry was a merchant and cotton broker, and for many years he was a deacon in the Presbyterian Church. Recorded, 1970

2-Mitchell County

Marker Title: Mitchell County
Address: Oak and Third St.
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: At courthouse - east side - Oak and Third, Colorado City.
Marker Text: Settled after Indians left Texas in 1875. One of 129 counties created (Aug. 21, 1876) from Bexar Territory covering West Texas to the Panhandle and El Paso. Named for Mitchell Brothers, Asa and Eli, Texas War for Independence veterans. Organized Jan. 10, 1881 when the railroad came, making county seat Colorado City West Texas' "Mother City" and first boom town. Oil, sheep and cattle ranching center. Historic sites include Comanche Indian Village; seven wells, last buffalo watering hole. Annual events: Colorado City Frontier Roundup and Tumbleweed Festival. (1965)

2-Ruddick Park

Marker Title: Ruddick Park
Address: Sixth and Houston St.
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: Ruddick Park, Sixth and Houston, Colorado City.
Marker Text: Given to city 1929 in memory of pioneer William Penn Ruddick, farmer and dairyman, and Mrs. Ruddick. History was made here even before Ruddick arrived, however. In 1840 Colonel John Henry Moore and 90 Indian fighters wiped out a Comanche village on the Colorado nearby. The creek that runs through the park was named for Chief Lone Wolf of the Kiowa Indians, who camped along the creek banks. In 1880 Co. B of the Frontier Battalion, under Captain Sam McMurry, was ordered here to combat Indian attacks. With the coming of the Texas & Pacific Railroad in 1881, immigrants began to flood the area. W.P. Ruddick (1851-1914) and his wife Sarah (Hutchens) moved from Oregon and set up housekeeping in a half-dugout until lumber could be shipped from Fort Worth. Ruddick, a Quaker, was one of the first in Mitchell County to raise cotton. He also planted an orchard and operated a dairy, for which he transported the first registered Jersey and Hereford cattle into the county. He ranched and drilled water wells for his neighbors as well as himself. Soon after the donation of the original 20-acre park by Ruddick's heirs, an ampitheatre and stage were built here. The park now contains 138 acres. (1970)

3-Seven Wells

Marker Title: Seven Wells
Address: SH 208, 6 mi. S of Colorado City
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: From Colorado City take SH 208 about 6 miles south to roadside park. Marker Text: This area, now covered by Lake Champion, was once the site of springs that originated from underground water which also supplied Champion Creek. They were called "wells" because the Seven Spring Basins closely resembled man-made wells. Buffalo tracks cut deep into the creek banks of soft sandstone indicated this was a watering place for great herds of bison. At least four trails crisscrossed the area where north and south Champion Creeks converged. For hundreds of years Indians also camped here, and in the 1880s a small, early Mitchell County settlement named "Artesia" grew up at the site of the wells. (1968)

4-Lone Wolf Mountain

Marker Title: Lone Wolf Mountain
Address: FM 644
City: Loraine
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: FM 644 at cemetery, southwest corner of Loraine.
Marker Text: Named for Chief of Kiowa Indians, held hostage by General Custer after the Washita campaign. Later released. Swore revenge on white man after son was killed. A clash took place on El Paso Road north of Ft. Concho, the location of Lone Wolf Mountain. Chief died 1879. (1967)

5-Renderbrook Ranch

Marker Title: Renderbrook Ranch
Address: SH 16, on Spade Ranch
City: Colorado City
County: Mitchell
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: From Colorado City take SH 16 about 22 miles south to Spade Ranch gate. Drive about 3.3 miles onto ranch to marker and stone house.
Marker Text: Founded in buffalo and Indian days of 1870's by Taylor Barr. Owned 1882-1889 by D.H. and J.W. Snyder. They built "White House" headquarters; sold ranch, 1889 to Isaac L. Ellwood, an inventor of barbed wire, in DeKalb, Illinois. Ellwood paid in wire for Spade cattle from Donley County, to stock ranch. Added Sterling and Coke lands to original 130,000 acres; to distinguish this from range bought 1902 near Lubbock, called this Renderbrook (from name of spring where Indians shot a U.S. Cavalry officer in the 1870's). Ellwood heirs still run Spade brand on 2 ranches. (1965)

NOLAN COUNTY

6-Nolan County

Marker Title: Nolan County
Address: Broadway St.
City: Sweetwater
County: Nolan
Year Marker Erected: 1975
Marker Location: Courthouse Square, Broadway Street, Sweetwater
Marker Text: Nomadic Indians crossed this region before Anglo-American pioneers arrived here in the 1870's. The first settlers were buffalo hunters such as I.S. (Tuck) Focht, who later became a rancher and businessman, and cattlemen such as confederate veteran John R. Lewis. Created in 1876, Nolan County was one of 54 countries carved from Bexar Territory. It was named for Philip Nolan (1771-1801), an Irish-born adventurer who came to Texas to capture wild horses and was killed in a skirmish with Spanish soldiers. Sweetwater, a small settlement that had grown up around a general store, was awarded the county's first post office in March 1879. It was also named the county seat when Nolan County was organized in January 1881. Sweetwater moved 2 miles northwest to its present location on the Texas & Pacific Rail Line in April 1881. It became an important rail center when the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient and later the Santa Fe Railroad also routed their track through the town. The economy of Nolan County is based on cattle and sheep ranching; cotton and feed grain crops; and gypsum, line, and petroleum production. The population of the county increased from 640 in 1880 to 16,220 in the 1970 census. (1975)

6-Pioneer Museum

Museum Name: Pioneer Museum
Mailing Address: 610 East 3rd
City: Sweetwater
Zip Code: 79556
Area Code: 915
Phone: 235-8547
County: Nolan

TAYLOR COUNTY

7-Butterfield Mail and Stage Line

Marker Title: Butterfield Mail and Stage Line
Address: FM 20, 1/2 mile W. of Tye
City: Tye
County: Taylor County
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Marker Location: From Tye, take Highway 20 .5 mile west.
Marker Text: One of major horse-drawn transportation projects of history. Was authorized by Act of Congress on March 3, 1857. Contract for semi-weekly service overland to San Francisco, California, was awarded to company headed by John Butterfield; another stockholder in the $2,000,00 venture was express pioneer William G. Fargo. The line employed some 2,000 people and used hundreds of stagecoaches and thousands of animals. In addition to receipts from freight and passengers, it had a $600,000 annual subsidy for carrying U.S. Mail. Company operated from September 1858 to February 1861 with a 25-day schedule for the 2,795 mile trip (8 to 9 days were allowed for crossing Texas). Route began in Tipton, Mo., and Memphis, TN., uniting at Fort Smith, AR., entering Texas near Sherman, thence westward through the Comanche-held frontier, leaving the state at El Paso. Stage stations were located about every 20 miles and the best known in this vicinity were Fort Belknap, Fort Phantom Hill, Mountain Pass and Fort Chadbourne. Between Fort Belknap and Tucson, AZ., mules were used to pull the coaches as they were less appealing to Indians. Each coach accommodated four to ten passengers at an average fare of $200 each; mail and freight charges were ten cents per one-half ounce. (1969)

8-Jim Ned Creek

Marker Title: Jim Ned Creek
Address: US 83
City: Tuscola
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: Highway 83, south city limits (at bridge) -Tuscola
Marker Text: Probably named for Jim Ned, Delaware Indian Chief. During Republic and early statehood of Texas (about 1840-1860), he was a scout for the Texas militia on several campaigns against wild Indians in this area. Dams near junction of two main forks of creek create Lake Brownwood. (1968)

9-Vicinity of Indian Fight

Marker Title: Vicinity of Indian Fight
Address: Old Settlers Reunion Grounds, Vine and West St.
City: Buffalo Gap
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: Old Settlers Reunion grounds, corner of Vine & West Streets, Buffalo Gap.
Marker Text: On August 29, 1863, Indian riders (probably Comanches) coming north from Mason County, with stolen horses, were caught a mile east of Buffalo Gap by Lt. T. C. Wright and eleven state troopers. The outnumbered soldiers were forced to attack up a steep hill and the Indians, determined to keep the herd, fought stubbornly. Wright and his men - two with severe arrow wounds - finally gave up the unequal fight and the Indians escaped with the horses. A lone rider was sent under cover of night to Camp Colorado (45 miles southeast) to bring an ambulance for the wounded. (1968)

10-Castle Peak

Marker Title: Castle Peak
Address: FM 1235, S of Merkel
City: Merkel
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: From Merkel, take FM 1235 south about 7 miles.
Marker Text: The Butterfield Overland Mail, the first public transportation facility spanning the area from the Mississippi to the Pacific with passenger and mail service, 1858-61, used the 2400-foot peak to the northeast as a beacon. The drivers and passengers viewed it for 30 to 40 miles. In that era it was called Abercrombie Peak, for Colonel J. J. Abercrombie of the U.S. Army, active in defense of this frontier. Waterman Ormsby, a newspaper reporter riding the first Butterfield Stage to pass this way, noted that the peak resembled a fortress. Later the height was renamed Castle Peak. (1968)

10-Vicinity of Indian Fight

Marker Title: Vicinity of Indian Fight
Address: Fm 1235
City: Merkel
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: From Merkel, take FM 1235 about 7 miles south
Marker Text: On New Year's Day, 1871, Indian raiders who had stolen horses in Coleman County were pursued and overtaken here by 18 Texas Rangers and cowboys. Leaders of the group were Captain James. M. Swisher and rancher Sam Gholson. The Indians took refuge in the heights west of Mountain Pass. The ensuing battle lasted all day, and at nightfall the raiders left the horses and fled. Of the fewer than one dozen Indians, one was killed, several wounded. One cowboy was wounded and another, J. M. Elkins, recorded the battle in his book, "Indian Fighting on the Texas Frontier." (1968)

11-Near Site of Indian Battle

Marker Title: Near Site of Indian Battle
Address: CR 351, S of Merkel
City: Merkel
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: From Merkel, take FM 126 south 14.4 miles to CR 350 and follow south about 21.4 miles then take CR 351 south .9 mile.
Marker Text: On February 15, 1870, Corporal Hilliard Morrow and five men of Company E, 24th U.S. Infantry, set out from Fort Griffin to relieve guards at Mountain Pass mail station near here. Soon after arriving, however, they were besieged by a raiding party of 75 Comanches. Although outnumbered by more than ten to one, the courageous group repelled the attack. The Indians, however, drove off five mules and one horse belonging to the El Paso and San Antonio Mail Company, which ran a branch line to the station. Three of the Indians were killed, but the soldiers suffered no losses. (1968)

11-Mountain Pass Station

Marker Title: Mountain Pass Station
Address: CR 351, SW of Merkel 32 mi.
City: Merkel
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 0
Marker Text: Maintained from 1858 to outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 as a stage stop on the Butterfield Overland Main Route, which was the first mail and passenger line to link the east and west coasts of the United States. In 1870s this was a stop for branch of El Paso and San Antonio mail line. (1968)

12-Mulberry Canyon

Marker Title: Mulberry Canyon
City: Merkel
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1997
Marker Location: 6.2 mi. SW of Merkel on FM 126 at intersection with FM 1085.
Marker Text: Human activity in this area has been traced to prehistoric eras. Native American tribes once roamed this land with the buffalo, deer, turkey, mountain lion, and black bear. Among the first recorded ventures into the canyon were the Military Road survey and the forty-niner mail route of 1849. The Military Road was used by the Butterfield Stage-Overland Mail route from 1858 to 1861. The canyon was named for the mulberry trees that grew along the largest creek. Cattle ranchers began to use the canyon in the 1870s. The last herds of buffalo passed through Mulberry Canyon in 1878 just before pioneer families began to build communities. In 1879 settlers planted maize, corn, and wheat; the first cotton was planted in 1886. The last black bear lived as a pet on the Brown Ranch in the 1880s. Over half a dozen small communities sprang up in the canyon. Ten churches and ten schools have served the area, which at its peak had a population of 500. The earliest marked grave in White Church Cemetery is dated 1883. Nubia, the only town, had a post office until 1917. The last store closed in 1946. In 1997, descendants of the pioneer settlers still occupied much of Mulberry Canyon. (1997)

13-In Vicinity of Coronado's Camp

Marker Title: In Vicinity of Coronado's Camp
Address: US 277 & FM 89 Junction
City: Abilene
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: From Abilene, take Highway 277 southwest about 15 miles to Junction 89.
Marker Text: In 1541, the Spanish explorer Coronado is thought to have passed this way en route from New Mexico to the fabled Indian villages of "Quivira", through his path across vast Texas plains is now difficult to determine. Upon finding that his Indian guide, "The Turk", had taken him too far south, Coronado halted at a small canyon or barranca. Here he conferred with his captains and decided to follow the compass directly north. When they reached "Quivira" (possibly in Kansas), no gold was found - only the poor, grass huts of a Wichita village. (1968)

14-Valley Creek Station

Marker Title: Valley Creek Station
Address: Off FM 1086, about 25 mi. SW of Abilene
City: Abilene
County: Taylor
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: From Abilene, take Highway 277 southwest about 22 miles to FM 1086 west, follow 1086 west about 3 miles northwest to end, go southwest on County Road about 1.2 miles to Valley Creek Crossing.
Marker Text: Maintained at falls and crossing of Valley Creek, 1858 to 1861, as a stage stop for the Butterfield Overland Mail. The twice-weekly mail and passenger line stretched from San Francisco to St. Louis, crossing northwest corner of Taylor County and passing six miles west of present Abilene. (1968)

ECTOR COUNTY

15-Old Buffalo Wallow

Marker Title: Old Buffalo Wallow
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1986
Marker Location: 4800 E 42nd St., Odessa (West side of atrium bldg. parking lot)
Marker Text: The nearby depression survives from an Epoch when great Buffalo herds migrated through West Texas, many moving between present Canada and Mexico over two major trails in the Odessa area. Wallows began with individual Buffalo rolling in the dirt to rid themselves of pests or shed their heavy winter coats in springtime. Repeated wallowing in the same spot by countless buffalo created an efficient depression to accomplish the cleaning ritual. Most wallows were eight to 12 feet across and two feet deep. Buffalo existed in the millions in north America, ranging throughout the western and central plains of Texas. They were pursued seasonally by the plains Indians, who subsisted on the food and clothing the Buffalo provided. In the late 19th century, railroads bisected their trails, isolating the herds and providing transportation of meat and hides to distant markets. In Texas vast buffalo slaughters were encouraged in the 1870s by the army, who wanted to deprive Indians of their commissary; settlers, who had crops trampled and forage consumed by the passing herds; and hunters, who realized quick profit particularly from hides. The Buffalo had all but disappeared from this area when Odessa was founded in 1886.

15-The Cable Tool Rig

Marker Title: The Cable Tool Rig
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: Odessa, 42nd St. & US 385 at Ector Co. Coliseum, (marker is on North side of Grounds & is enclosed in chain link fence)
Marker Text: Equipment that replaced the spring pole drilling method used in America's earlier oil fields. The Cable Tool Rig used a bit suspended on a steel drilling cable. The bit is dropped in the hole and the impact breaks up the formation. The broken pieces are removed by a bail. This method made possible the deeper penetration so necessary in the southwest. The Cable Tool Rig was introduced in Texas in 1866. (some use of Cable Tools had been made around 1840 in the north.) Texas gave the southwestern oil industry the first lease, the first oil pipe line, the first wooden and iron storage tanks, the first iron drums for transporting crude oil and first use of the augur principle later employed in rotary rigs. The Cable Tool Rig brought in the first important wells of the Permian basin. This Rig was reconstructed from parts of several Rig was reconstructed from parts of several rigs actually used at big lake, Reagan county, where the No. 1 Santa Rita blew in during may 1923 as the first well in the first major oil field in the Permian basin. To the cable tool rig and the men who used it goes credit for the great development in the Permian basin.

15-Comanche War Trail

Marker Title: Comanche War Trail
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: (Access. Rd on Bus. IH 20, East of loop 338, near entrance to Sunset Memorial Gardens) Odessa.
Marker Text: A Barred, Bristling flying wedge--the Comanches--Rode into 18th century Texas, driving the Wichitas and Caddoes East, the Apaches West, becoming lords of the south plains. Harassed the Spanish and Anglo-Americans along frontier from Corpus Christi on the Gulf up to the Red River. Wrote their name in blood clear down to Zacatecas, Mexico. Captured women, children and horses along their road of blood, tears and agony. Many roads converged into the great Comanche war trail, which passed about 20 miles southeast of this marker.

15-Site of the Dawson Saloon

Marker Title: Site of the Dawson Saloon
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: 125 West 2nd St. (also US Hwy. 80), Odessa (in front of Bldg. facing North).
Marker Text: Frontier business of S.T. (TOL) and E.F. (LISH) Dawson, brothers. Lish Dawson, 1891-92 Sheriff of Ector County, had a barber chair in the Saloon, and helped tend bar. Liquor was in 40-gallon barrels. Ice for drinks was hauled from great lakes by Texas & Pacific Railroad. To avoid township restriction on liquor sales, Dawson moved saloon to the street; Tol was brought to trial for this. "White Ribboners"--Clubwomen opposed saloons. In the face Lish Dawson lost his office, and the business was closed.

15-Ector County

Marker Title: Ector County
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: (Bus. IH-20, East of loop 338 near entrance to Sunset Memorial Gardens) Odessa.
Marker Size: Pink Hwy. Marker Repairs Completed: N/A
Marker Text: Created February 26, 1887 from Tom Green County organized January 15, 1891, named in honor of Matthew Duncan Ector 1822-1879. Member of the Texas legislature a confederate officer and outstanding jurist Odessa, The County Seat.

15-Site of Old Livery Stable and Wagon Yard

Marker Title: Site of Old Livery Stable and Wagon Yard
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 205 N. Grant St., Odessa (near Odessa Police Dept.)
Marker Text: Established 1897 as Odessa's first livery stable and wagon yard by Francis M. Tallant. Cowmen stabled their horses, then headed for ranch saloon located across from stable. Sold 1906 to C. A. Beardsley, who advertised "good rigs, dray line and prompt attention." Livery stable had saddle horses and animal-drawn vehicles for hire. Wagon yard offered shelter for travelers and their teams. Automobiles changed life. In 1915, Joe W. Rice bought stable and converted it into a garage sandstone structure (covered with stucco) still stands. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967.

15-Parker House Ranching Heritage Museum

Museum Name: Parker House Ranching Heritage Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 3908
Street Address: 1118 Maple Ave.
City: Odessa
Zip Code: 79760
Area Code: 915
Phone: 335-9918
County: Ector

15-Permian Basin

Marker Title: Permian Basin
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: Ector Coliseum Grounds, 42nd St., Odessa.
Marker Text: One of the two richest oil fields in the world. Discovery began in 1920 at a Mitchell County Well. Next came the 1923 big lake strike, then the wild 1925 boom in Upton County, followed by production in Andrews, Crane, Ector, Martin, Midland, Pecos, Ward, Winkler and 24 other counties. In some years new wells averaged 38 a week. Fortunes were Mae, lost, then regained--all within months. So great were yields that oil brought 50 cents a barrel, while drillers paid $5.00 a barrel for drinking water. Area is 88,610 square miles, with center here at Odessa. Extends across a deeply buried prehistoric sea that more than 250 million years ago contained much fish and reptile life, including dinosaurs. Shores and islands later grew giant vegetation, until earth changes buried animals and plants in pockets that turned hydrocarbons into petroleum. In 40 years from its discovery, the Permian Basin, was producing 53% of total oil in Texas 20% of U.S. crude oil. It is one of the world's largest producers of channel carbon black. Other by-products sulphur, asphalt, synthetic rubber ingredients and petrochemicals.

15-Prairie Dog

Marker Title: Prairie Dog
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: Prairie Pete Park, 44th at East Co. Rd., Odessa.
Marker Text: Actually a squirrel. Gets name from its bark. It was food for settlers, especially in drouths. Lives in cluster of burrows called a "Town". Burrows, hazardous to running horses, often have caused broken bones among horses and riders. Also prairie dogs ate grass roots, destroying cattle feed. One old-time town was 100 miles wide and extended, almost unbroken, 250 miles southward from prairie dog town fork of Red River. Extermination has wiped out most colonies. This colony was established in 1959 by Odessa rotary club.

15-The Presidential Museum

Museum Name: The Presidential Museum
Mailing Address: 622 N. Lee Street
City: Odessa
Zip Code: 79761
Street Area Code: 915
Phone: 332-7123
County: Ector

15-Site of Homestead of William C. Sublett

Marker Title: Site of Homestead of William C. Sublett
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 222 N. Grandview, Odessa.
Marker Text: Born 1835 in Alabama. Moved to north Texas before the civil war, in which he served as a confederate. After his wife died in 1874, he went to the Texas frontier to hunt Buffalo, taking his three young children with him. In 1881-1882 he supplied game to Texas & Pacific Railroad construction crews. (such hunting was important to development of west Texas and to transcontinental railroad construction). Settling later in Odessa, Sublett built near this site a dogout-and-tent home, and homesteaded a 160 acre claim. To support his family, he hauled wood and "Water-Witched" to locate wells for settlers. In the 1880's he attracted notice by using gold nuggets to trade for supplies. In explanation, he said an Apache Indian had directed him to a mine in the Guadalupe Mountains, about 150 miles west of here. Periodically he disappeared and returned with gold, but efforts to follow him to the mine always failed. He once took his young son there, but the boy could not find the way later. in 1889, Sublett sold his Ector County property. He died Jan. 6, 1892, in Barstow, without disclosing the location of his mine. However, stories of his treasure still lure explorers into the Guadalupe Mountains. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967.

16-The Caprock

Marker Title: The Caprock
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: From Odessa, take IH 20 West about 13 miles to Highway Rest area.
Marker Text: A range of flat-topped ridges and cliffs stretching from Texas panhandle to 20 miles South of this point and extending into new Mexico. The name also refers to tough limestone that caps ridges. Rising sharply 200 to 1,000 ft. above plains. This section, Concho Bluffs, Marks Western edge of Caprock escarpment. Called the "Break of the plains" because it divides the staked plains from the north central plains of Texas. Observed by Coronado's expedition, 1540-1540, provided shelter in storms, but delayed entrance of settlers to staked plains. Herds of stampeding cattle at times plunged over its edge. In the area, the Caprock blocked eastbound wagons, including some from California gold fields in 1850'a. Because of scarce surface water, staked plains were too dry for farming or ranching until wells were drilled and windmills installed. Ridges and canyons here hindered railroad building. In 1881 workmen earned $2.50 a day-highest wages ever paid until then on a texas railroad job-at "Colt's Big Rock Cut" (the mile-wide, 17-ft. chasm visible here). A tragic accident with dynamite injured several of Colt's men and killed three. Their graves, known to the pioneers around Odessa, were on a hill northeast of the tracks, but cannot now be found.

16-Odessa

Marker Title: Odessa
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: From Odessa, take IH 20 West about 14 mile to Roadside Park.
Marker Text: Founded 1881. Legend says name came from an Indian princess who wandered into camp of texas & Pacific railroad construction gang. others say it was for Odessa on Russian plains--area west Texas resembles. County seat ever since Ector was organized, 1891. has had great growth since 1926 oil strike. Center for one of the two largest oil fields in the world. Has largest inland petrochemical complex in united states, alone with many other diversified industries. It is also the oilfield supply capital of the world. Odessa college has served area since 1946. City has 143 churches; a symphony orchestra; clubs for sports, service, culture. Recreational attractions include nation's second largest meteor crater; exact replica of shakespeare's 16th century globe theatre; 4 museums; a planetarium; industrial tours; "permian playhouse"; "Prairie Dog Pete" park; world's largest Jackrabbit statue; and 21 payground-parks. Unique "presidential room" depicts lives of U.S. presidents in art, documents, and memorabilia. Sandhill Hereford and quarterhouse show opens annual rodeo season for entire southwest. World famous permian basin oil show is held biennially.

17-Emigrant Trail

Marker Title: Emigrant Trail
City: Odessa
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: From Hwy 80 in Odessa, take US 385 North about 4.6 miles.
Marker Text: Road of Stubborn seekers of 1849 California gold fields and better life. Bringing the old, infant, the yet unborn and all worldly goods, family wagons entered Texas at Preston, on Red River, to go southwest via springs Including some now in Monaghan Sandhills Park) to emigrants' crossing on the Pecos, then upriver and west through Guadalupe pass to El Paso. Old wagon parts by the trail tell of some disasters. Capt. R. B. Marcy in 1849 and Capt. John Pope in 1854 made army surveys of the trail. It passed near this spot.

17-LeGrande Survey of 1833

Marker Title: LeGrande Survey of 1833
County: Ector
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: From Ector County Courthouse, take US 385 North about 12.5 miles on East Service Rd. (before intersection of US 385 & SH 158).
Marker Text: Made in era of Mexico rule in Texas for John Beales, who through partnerships, acquired 70,000,000 acres of land and gained the title of "Texas" largest land king. Alexander LeGrande's survey covered about 2,000 miles in west Texas, Oklahoma Panhandle and Eastern New Mexico then south to the 32nd parallel. Hardship and tragedy plagued LeGrande's abandoned survey. First exploration here is usually credited to Capt. R. B. Marcy, U. S. Army; LeGrande's work was years earlier.

MIDLAND COUNTY

18-W. B. Anglin

Marker Title: W. B. Anglin
Address: Nobles and N Pecos St.
City: Midland
County: Midland
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: At corner of Nobles & N. Pecos St., Fairview Cemetery, Veterans Station, Midland.
Marker Text: A member, Company B, Frontier Battalion of Texas rangers. Killed near here while trailing Comanche Indian raiding party on July 1, 1879. He was buried on the spot where he fell. A native of Virginia, member of one of its first families, he joined rangers in 1875 at about age 25. Anglin was last man to be killed by Indians in central west Texas. He was known for his bravery, kindness, good humor and unceasing devotion to duty.

18-Brown-Dorsey Medallion Home

Museum Name: Brown-Dorsey Medallion Home
Mailing Address: 2102 Community Land
Street Address: 213 Community Land
City: Midland
Zip Code: 77970
Area Code: 915
Phone: 682-2931
County: Midland

18-Marcy Trail

Marker Title: Marcy Trail
Address: IH 20, E of Midland 5 mi.
City: Midland
County: Midland
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: 4.8 mile E. on I-20 in Roadside Park
Marker Text: Plotted in 1849 by a U. S. Army surveying expedition under Capt. Randolph B. Marcy. Guided by Manuel, a Comanche Indian, Marcy crossed the dreaded staked plains of West Texas, proving their feasibility for travel, and opening a new and shorter road west. Marcy's trail from Dona Ana, N. M., to Fort Smith, Ark., became a major road to the California gold fields. Later the overland stage followed it for about 125 miles and in 1881, Texas and Pacific Railroad built along part of the route.

18-Midland County

Marker Title: Midland County
Address: US 80 and FM 1788
City: Midland
County: Midland
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: From Midland, go 10 mile SW on US 80 (I-20 Business). Marker is Just. N. of Junction of I-20 & FM 1788 on 1788.
Marker Text: First known as the junction of many trails and site of the last Comanche raid into Texas. In 1881 the Texas and Pacific railroad was built ; equi-distant between El Paso and Fort Worth, this became known as Midland. First settler was a sheepman in 1882. Water Wells and Windmills lured small farmers. Became headquarters for 1928 Permian Basin oil discovery. In 1945 its first well came in . The "Midland Man", oldest skeletal remains in North America (18,500 B. C.), was found in 1954.

18-Midland County Historical Museum

Museum Name: Midland County Historical Museum
Mailing Address: 2102 Community Lane
Street Address: 301 W Missouri
City: Midland
Zip Code: 79701
Area Code: 915
Phone: 692-2931
County: Midland

18-Midland Man

Marker Title: Midland Man
Address: Wall & Colorado St., Courthouse square
City: Midland
County: Midland
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Marker Location: Courthouse Square, corner of Wall St. & N. Colorado, Midland
Marker Text: Oldest human remains in new world. Found 1953 on ranch near here by pipeline Welder Keith Glasscock. Fossilized skull, rib and hand bones had been exposed by weather conditions. Tests indicated these were bones of a woman who lived as long ago as 9000-9500 B. C.; nearby were bones of extinct species of horse, camel, mammoth, peccary, wolf, sloth; with weapons, tools and signs of ancient campfires. Drs. Fred Wendorf and Alex D. Kreiger, archaeologists; Claude C. Albritton, geologist; T. D. Stewart, physician and anthropologist, made studies of the discovery.

18-Museum of the Southwest

Museum Name: Museum of the Southwest
Mailing Address: 1705 W Missouri Avenue
City: Midland
Zip Code: 79701
Area Code: 915
Phone: 683-2882
County: Midland

GLASSCOCK COUNTY

19-Glasscock County

Marker Title: Glasscock County
City: Garden City
County: Glasscock
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: Courthouse grounds, FM 158, Garden City
Marker Text: Created in 1887. Organized 1893, with Garden City county seat. Named for George W. Glasscock (1810-68), flatboating partner of Abraham Lincoln in Illinois. Came to Texas 1834 and fought 1835-36 in the War for Independence from Mexico. Built first Central Texas flour mill, Williamson County. Georgetown was named for him. Was in Texas Legislature, 1864- 68. Of the 254 Texas counties, 42 bear Indian, French or Spanish names. 10 honor such colonizers as Stephen F. Austin, "Father of Texas". 12 were named for Washington, Clay, and other American patriots. 96 were named for men like Glasscock who fought in the Texas War for Independence (15 dying at the Alamo), signed the Declaration of Independence, or served as statesmen in the Republic of Texas. 23 have the names of frontiersmen and pioneers. 11 honor American statesmen who worked for the annexation of Texas; 10, leaders in Texas since statehood, including jurists, ministers, educators, historians, statesmen; and 36, men prominent in the Confederacy during the Civil War. Midland and 8 others have geographical names. San Jacinto and Val Verde were named for battles. Live Oak and Orange for trees, and Mason for a fort.

STERLING COUNTY

20-Camp Elizabeth

Marker Title: Camp Elizabeth
Address: US 87 NW of Sterling City about 10 mi.
City: Sterling City
County: Sterling
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: From Sterling City, take Highway 87 northwest about 10 miles
Marker Text: Thought to have been established 1853; used as an outpost hospital of Fort Concho 1874-1886.

20-Sterling County

Marker Title: Sterling County
Address: 4th & Elm St.
City: Sterling City
County: Sterling
Year Marker Erected: 1976
Marker Location: Corner of 4th and Elm, Sterling City
Marker Text: This prairie region split by the north Concho River is old Comanche, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Lipan, and Wichita hunting ground. Possibly it was crossed by six or so Spanish explorations between 1540 and 1654. In the 1860s and 70s, Anglo-Americans hunted buffalo commercially in this area. An 1860s hunter, Capt. W. S. Sterling, had a dugout home on the creek that bears his name. In the 1870s, bandits Frank and Jesse James kept horse herds on a tributary of Sterling Creek. In 1874 the United States Army occupied Camp Elizabeth, a Fort Concho outpost hospital, about ten miles west of here. Ranchers from other counties began to bring in large cattle herds in the 1870s, to capitalize on free grass. After keeping out small herds for a time, they permitted actual settlers to share the range. Family men staked land claims, grew crops in the valleys, and opened stores, schools, and post offices. On March 4, 1891, on the petition of 150 citizens, the county was created out of part of Tom Green County, and named for its first regular resident. Sterling City became the county seat. Petroleum production has been important to the economy since the 1950s; yet the land essentially remains range country, grazed by cattle and sheep.

COKE COUNTY

21-Panther Gap

Marker Title: Panther Gap
City: Robert Lee
County: Coke
Year Marker Erected: 1973
Marker Location: SH 208, 13 miles northwest of Robert Lee
Marker Text: Landmark on ancient Indian trail, and early route of travelers and military west of Fort Chadbourne (20 miles east) before the Civil War. After 1880, was used extensively to connect this area with the railroad at Colorado City. Named for Panthers (Cougars), which still roam the region. (1973)

21-Southern Overland Mail, 1858-1861

Marker Title: Southern Overland Mail, 1858-1861
City: Robert Lee vicinity
County: Coke
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Marker Location: from Robert Lee city limits, take SH 158 east about 5.75 miles
Marker Text: Passed near this site, providing for the first time combined passenger and mail service between Pacific and Atlantic coasts. Operating west from St. Louis and Memphis, John Butterfield's company used 1,350 horses and mules and 90 Concord coaches and wagons. Stage traveled at a run, despite lack of good roads. A signal given approaching a station would have fresh horses ready and food on the table for crew and passengers. Route had stations 12 to 113 miles apart, and was sometimes changed to get water. Crew and passengers wore guns; to reduce danger of Indian attacks, mules (less coveted than horses) were used west of Ft. Belknap. The trip one way took 25 days -- seven spent crossing Texas, from Preston (now under Lake Texoma) to Jacksboro, Ft. Belknap, Ft. Chadbourne and El Paso. One way fare for the 2,700 miles was $200. Passengers rarely stopped off, because they might not find seats on a later stage. Merchants in Jacksboro and other towns used Butterfield's light freight service to make mail-order sales. Greatest contribution of the overland stage was its carrying news; coaches also brought mail from the west one to 10 days faster than it came by ship. Service was ended in 1861 by the Civil War. (1966) Incise on base: Early Travel, Communication and Transportation Series erected by Moody Foundation, 1966.

22-Fort Chadbourne

Marker Title: Fort Chadbourne
City: Bronte vicinity
County: Coke
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: 11.75 north of Bronte on US 277 at entrance to Fort Chadbourne
Marker Text: Established by the United States Army, October 28, 1852, as a protection to frontier settlers against Indians named in honor of Lieutenant T.L. Chadbourne, killed at Resaca de la Palma, May 9, 1846, occupied by federal troops, 1852-1867. An important station on the Butterfield overland stage route, 1858 - 1861.

22-Fort Chadbourne, C. S. A.

Marker Title: Fort Chadbourne, C. S. A
City: Bronte
County: Coke
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: City Hall grounds, 100 block of S. Washington St.
Marker Text: Located 8 miles north on old Butterfield stageline. Upon secession, company of First Regiment Texas Mounted Rifles occupied this post to give protection against Indians. Stopover on way west for many Union sympathizers and people wanting to avoid conflict of war. Permanent personnel left the fort in 1862 when the frontier defense line was pulled back more than 50 miles east. However scouting parties and patrols of Confederate and state troops used the fort intermittently in aggressive warfare to keep Indians near their camps and away from settlements and to check on the invasion by union forces. Usually supplying their own mounts, guns and sustenance, these men guarded the frontier until war's end. (1963)

22-Indian Rock Shelters

Marker Title: Indian Rock Shelters
County: Coke
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: from Bronte, take US 277 north about 8 miles to the junction with SH 70.
Marker Text: Throughout this area during the last several centuries, rock ledges gave protection to Lipan, Kickapoo, Comanche, and Kiowa Indians. In one typical shelter archeologists found evidence of 3 periods of occupation, plus numerous intricate petroglyphs (rock carvings). River shells, turkey and deer bones, flint knives, scrapers, and points lay about the area. One of several hearths (2' x 3' in size) consisted of small pieces of sandstone lining a natural rock trough. On the highest level was found green bottle glass from nearby Fort Chadbourne (1852-1867). (1970)

22-Route of the Southern Oveland Mail

Marker Title: Route of the Southern Overland Mail
City: Bronte vicinity
County: Coke
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: from Bronte, take US 277 north about 11 miles to roadside park
Marker Text: One mile southeast to Fort Chadbourne, a station on the Butterfield mail and stage line, which linked St. Louis and San Francisco, 1858 - 1861. The fort was established in 1852, occupied until its surrender to state forces in 1861, and garrisoned at times after the Civil War.

RUNNELS COUNTY

23-W. H. Brown

Marker Title: W. H. Brown
Address: CR 297 off FM 158 about 20 mi. W of Ballinger
City: Ballinger
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: from Ballinger, take FM 158 about 19 miles west, then go south on CR 297 .25 mile.
Marker Text: Born in Georgia. With his parents came to Texas 1857. He and a brother, John, were Texas Rangers -- W. H. ("Billy") serving June-December 1874. Billy Brown was the last man killed by Indians in Runnels County, in a fight to regain stolen horses.

23-Mission of San Clemente

Marker Title: San Clemente
Address: US 83, about 6.5 mi. S of Ballinger
City: Ballinger
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: From Ballinger, take Highway 83 south about 6.5 miles
Marker Text: The first mission known to have been established in Texas east of the Pecos River, San Clemente was a hastily built, two-room structure located on a hill about 17 miles south of present Ballinger. (Some historians place the site farther south, near Junction.) Although earlier than the great Spanish mission movement, this was one of the first (1684) in Texas and was founded by Juan Dominguez de Mendoza and Fray Nicolas Lopez. Named for the San Clemente River (actually the Colorado), the mission was founded at the request of the Jumano Indians, who desired Christianity and the friendship of the Spanish. The buildings was probably constructed of logs, its lower story serving as a chapel and its upper story as a lookout post. Though they stayed only from March 15 to May 1, awaiting envoys from 48 tribes (bands), the Spaniards baptized many of their several thousand Indian allies. Finally, being attacked by hostile Apaches, Mendoza returned with his men to El Paso six months after he had left. Although Mendoza did not know it, French explorer La Salle had landed on the Gulf Coast, 1684. This fact, plus Mendoza's report of seeing a French flag among the Indians quickly led to other Spanish expeditions being sent to chart the Texas wilderness.

23-Site of Pickettville

Marker Title: Site of Pickettville
Address: US 67 & US 83
City: Ballinger
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1973
Marker Location: From Ballinger, take US 67 1.7 miles northeast (1 mile northeast of JCT US 67 and US 83)
Marker Text: First civilian settlement in Runnels County. Founded 1862 by frontiersmen whose picket houses and corrals gave place its name. Original settlers included Mr. and Mrs. John W. Guest and three sons; Henry and R. K. Wylie, their cowboys and Negro servant; Mrs. Felicia Gordon and five sons. In 1862, "Rich" Coffey's family also moved here. Indian hostilities of Civil War years (1861-65) caused these ranchers to band together for protection. In 1866, they left with cattle for open range. Their picket corrals later penned the trail herds of John Hittson, John and Joseph Henderson, and others.


Samuel Maverick, from the book, Panhandle Pilgrimage, by Pauline Durrett and R.L. Robertson

23-Samuel Maverick

Marker Title: Maverick
Address: SH 158, about 13.5 mi. W of Ballinger
City: Ballinger
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Marker Location: from Ballinger, take SH 158 west about 13.5 miles
Marker Text: Founded in the 1870s. Named for Samuel A. Maverick (1803-1870), who came to Texas 1835. Fought in the Texas War for Independence. In Secession Convention, 1861, he was made one of the commissioners to negotiate surrender of United States troops in San Antonio. In 1853 he had land in this important ranching area.

24-Nancy Parker Cabin

Marker Title: Nancy Parker Cabin
Address: FM 382, via FM 1770 E of Winters
City: Winters
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: From Winters, take FM 1770 east 12 miles then FM 382 north about 4 miles.
Marker Text: Home of "Grandma" (Mrs. John) Parker, local herb doctor. Here she brewed medicinal teas in a huge pot over an open fire; walked miles in Indian-infested country to visit the sick. Lived here over a decade. Sold cabin after eyesight failed, 1888. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1970

24-Ranger Campsite

Marker Title: Ranger Campsite
Address: FM 382 via FM 1770, about 15 mi. NE of Winters
City: Winters
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: from Winters, from FM 1770 east about 12 miles then go north on FM 382 about 3.5 miles
Marker Text: One-half mile east of here, some twenty-five to thirty Texas rangers of Company E were stationed in 1874, under the command of Capt. W. J. "Jeff" Maltby. They kept sentries posted on nearby "Ranger Peak" to guard against Indians. Remains of a dry well they dug are still visible.

24-Ranger Campsite Water Well

Marker Title: Ranger Campsite Water Well
Address: FM 382 via FM 1770
City: Winters
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1980
Marker Location: From Winters, take FM 1770 east 12 miles, go north 3.5 miles on FM 382 is in field .5 mile east
Marker Text: In an effort to protect area settlements, Governor Richard Coke established the frontier battalion in 1874. Comprised of six companies of volunteer Rangers, it was headed by Major John B. Jones. This campsite was part of a defensive line which reached from the Red River to the coastal area. Rangers of Co. E, under the leadership of Captain W. J. Maltby, were stationed here in 1874. The camp consisted of tents, a corral for horses, and this hand-dug well, which failed to provide water. Daily scouting duties included a sentry post on nearby Ranger Peak (0.5 miles west).

24-Ranger Peak

Marker Title: Ranger Peak
Address: FM 382 via FM 1770
City: Winters
County: Runnels
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: from Winters, go east on FM 1770 about 12 miles then go north on FM 382 about 3.5 miles.
Marker Text: Named for Company E, Texas Rangers, which was stationed 1/2 mile east of peak in 1874. Atop peak, Rangers (Under Capt. W. J. "Jeff" Maltby) kept a lookout for Indians. Outfit was part of the frontier battalion, organized to protect Texas settlers on frontier stretching from Red River to the Nueces. Camp was abandoned in 1876.

COLEMAN COUNTY

25-Camp Colorado, C. S. A.

Marker Title: Camp Colorado, C. S. A.
City: Coleman
County: Coleman
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: City Park on SH 206, north side of Coleman.
Marker Text: Surrendered as U. S. outpost beginning Civil War. Became part frontier defense line from Red River to Rio Grande. Headquarters first Texas Mounted Rifles 1861 and Texas Frontier Regiment 1863. Manned by troops and Rangers in state and C.S.A. service to war's end. Valuable duty performed while patrolling and scouting to curb Indian raids and in rounding up draft evaders, deserters. Camp life difficult with constant peril of Indian attack, shortage food, ammunition, supplies and horses. Located 12 miles northeast. A memorial to Texans who served the Confederacy. Erected by the State of Texas 1963

25-Camp Colorado Guard House

Marker Title: Camp Colorado Guard House
City: Coleman
County: Coleman
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: On private property, from Coleman take SH 206 about 5.3 miles; head east on FM 2303 about 6 miles; turn south onto dirt road and continue about 1.6 miles to Camp Colorado site.
Marker Text: --

25-Ruins of Camp Colorado

Marker Title: Ruins of Camp Colorado
City: Coleman vicinity
County: Coleman
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: From Coleman take SH 206 about 5.3 miles; head east on FM 2302 about 6 miles. Head south on dirt road about 1.6 miles to marker (on private property).
Marker Text: Originally established on the Colorado River by the United States Army as a protection for the frontier against hostile Indians; moved in August, 1856, to this site; abandoned by Federal troops February 26, 1861. The site became the property in 1870 of Henry Sackett (1851-1928), who built his home here in 1879. From here he, with Maltby's Rangers, in 1874, pursued the bands of Big Foot and Jape, Comanche chiefs, and defeated them.

CRANE COUNTY

26-Crane County

Marker Title: Crane County
City: Crane
County: Crane
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: On US 385 about 5 miles N. of Crane in Roadside Park
Marker Text: Formed from Tom Green County Created February 26, 1887 Organized September 3, 1927. Named in honor of William Carey Crane 1816-1885. A Baptist minister President of Baylor University 1863-1885 Crane, The County Seat. (1 mi. N Crane, State Hwy. 51)

26-Horsehead Crossing of the Pecos

Marker Title: Horsehead Crossing of the Pecos
City: Crane
County: Crane
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: Located in the Crane TxDot scrapyard, US 385 1 mile N of Crane Marker Text: Well known to frontiersmen and used by emigrants for several years preceding, this crossing was an important point on the southern overland mail (Butterfield route) which Linked St. Louis and San Francisco with a semi-weekly mail and stage service 1858-1861.

26-Horsehead Crossing, C. S. A.

Marker Title: Horsehead Crossing, C. S. A.
City: Crane
County: Crane
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: In Roadside Park on US 385/67 in far SE corner of Crane County
Marker Text: One of the most important sites in the old west. Named for skulls pointing toward crossing. Only ford for many miles where animals could enter, drink and leave Pecos River safely. Elsewhere deep banks would trap them. Ford mapped 1849 by Capt. R. B. Marcy, head of army escort for parties on way to California gold rush. Used in 1850's contractor for first mail route from San Antonio to El Paso. As change station, echoed with brass bugle call of Butterfield coach carrying mail from St. Louis to San Francisco, in first stage service to span continent, 1858-1861. During the Civil War, 1861-1865, used by wagons hauling highly valuable salt scooped from bed of nearby Juan Cordona Lake, to meet Texas scarcities. Also scene of spying and counterspying of Federal and Confederates watching Overland Trail. Federal, operating out of El Paso, feared invasion by way of Horsehead. Confederates several times threw back armies that sought to enter the state in order to deploy along the old Overland Trail and conquer north and west Texas. Later this became important crossing for cattle on Goodnight-Loving trail, mapped in 1866. (1965)

UPTON COUNTY

27-Castle Mountain

Marker Title: Castle Mountain
City: McCamey
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: From Crane, 8 miles S. on U. S. 385 to Roadside Park (marker was in Crane County).
Marker Text: About 3,000 ft. elevation. Since 17th century, a landmark in travel from Texas points to Mexico and California. According to tradition, named by Spaniards for resemblance to ancient castles. Has associations with stories of lost trains of gold and other treasures. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1966.

27-Castle Gap

Marker Title: Castle Gap
Address: US 67, E of McCamey
City: McCamey
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Marker Location: On US 67 about 5 miles E of McCamey
Marker Text: Castle Gap, famous early pass for southwestern trails, lies 14 miles northwest along the Upton-Crane County line. Through this mile-long gap between Castle and King mountains flowed the full panorama of Texas history-- Indian, Spaniard, Stage and Trail Herd Driver, Settler, '49er. In prehistoric time Castle Gap was a landmark for nomadic Indian tribes and later guided the Commanches on their war trail into Mexico. The first white man to discover the pass was probably the Spanish explorer Felipe Rabago y Teran in 1761. Then came the '49ers in their frenzied rush to the California gold fields, to be followed by other, more permanent settlers. From 1858 to 1861 the famed Butterfield Overland Mail coaches rumbled through the pass on their 24-day journey from St. Louis to San Francisco, pausing briefly at the adobe-walled Castle Gap station for fresh teams. Then they were off again, fording into the sunset. By 1866 the Goodnight-Loving cattle trail was firmly established at the gap, funneling tens of thousands of brawling longhorn cattle to the northern markets. During this same period, legend holds that a treasure-laden aide of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico, fleeing the country when the regime collapsed, buried gold and jewels in the area. Dust of the pioneers settled long ago. Today Castle Gap slumbers peacefully, disturbed only by visitors, occasional treasure hunters and those who probe for ruins of the Butterfield station and the rapidly fading ruts of coach and wagon.

27-Early Humble Camp in Permian Basin

Marker Title: Early Humble Camp in Permian Basin
Address: US 67, across from Santa Fe Park
City: McCamey
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: On US 67, Eastern edge of McCamey, across from Santa Fe Park
Marker Text: The World's largest complex of oil wells in the 1920s was developed in this area. Key to success of this vast petroleum field lay in finding ways to convey oil to growing fuel markets. First efficient transportation came in 1925 with the laying of the Humble pipeline from Kemper Station, near Big Lake, to Comyn Station (a distance of about 500 miles), to connect with existing Comyn-Baytown system. Early camp for pipeline construction crews was built here 1926 when Humble extended its line west from Big Like Field. Camp's site led to growth of McCamey and building of a refinery. McCamey became important center of oil production and operation. A constant flow of oil went through Humble's pipeline on its long journey to the Gulf Coast. Even with use of pipeline and railroad tank cars, more oil was produced than could be marketed. New practices had to be used to prevent overproduction and waste. Thus Humble pipeline became involved in the first voluntary proration in Texas, when in 1928 producing capacity of local wells was reduced to a level consistent with transportation facilities. Today in Texas, Humble has 15,000 oil and gas wells; 9,545 miles of pipeline; and one refinery.

27-King Mountain

Marker Title: King Mountain
Address: US 385, W of McCamey
City: McCamey
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: About 3 miles NW of McCamey on US 385
Marker Text: Probably named for Guy King, rancher who drilled first water well on top of mountain about 1900. Elevation is 3,000 feet. Part of an uplift in southern Permian Basin; associated with county oil fields. Many Indian relics have been found along the Rim Rock.

27-Mendoza Trail

Marker Title: Mendoza Trail
Address: US 67, in Santa Fe Park
City: McCamey
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: On US 67, Eastern edge of McCamey in Santa Fe Park
Marker Text: Route taken, 1683-1684, by the party of Lt. Gen. Juan Dominguez de Mendoza, whose purpose was to explore the Pecos Plains, obtain pearls from Texas rivers, and Christianize the Jumano Indians. Starting 12 miles below El Paso, the party of 35 traveled first southeast, then northeast into Texas, Crossing future Upton County. They found many pearls near present San Angelo; and at the confluence of the Concho and Colorado rivers, they founded San Clemente Mission. Two centuries later, part of Mendoza's route was taken by the Goodnight-Loving cattle trail. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1967.

27-Mendoza Trail Museum

Museum Name: Mendoza Trail Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Drawer B
Street Address: Santa Fe Park Hwy 67 E
City: McCamey
Zip Code: 79752
Area Code: 915
Phone: 652-3192
County: Upton

28-Rankin Museum

Museum Name: Rankin Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 82
Street Address: 101 W 5th S of Hwy 67
City: Rankin
Zip Code: 79778-0082
County: Upton

28-Upton County

Marker Title: Upton County
Address: US 67, East of Rankin in roadside park
City: Rankin
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: On US 67, about 6 miles E of Rankin in Roadside park
Marker Text: Formed from Tom Green County created February 26, 1887 - organized May 7, 1910. Named in honor of John Cunningham Upton 1828-1868. A distinguished Confederate officer killed at Manassas, August 30, 1862. County Seat, Upland, 1910-1921; Rankin, since. A cattle and sheep raising county, oil wells dot the county.

28-John C. Upton and His Brother, W. F. Upton

Marker Title: John C. Upton and His Brother, W. F. Upton
Address: 10th and Rankin St.
City: Rankin
County: Upton
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: Courthouse Lawn, (corner of 10th and Rankin Sts.) Rankin
Marker Text: County named for Texas Confederates (Star and Wreath). Colonel John Cunningham Upton (1828-1862) Born Tennessee. Came to Texas 1859. Raised company outbreak of Civil War. Attached to 5th Texas Infantry, Hood's famed Texas Brigade, fighting in the campaigns in and around Virginia. Rose to Lt. Colonel of his regiment. The day before his death at the Battle of Second Manassas, led charge upon the enemy rear guard which was a seldom seen, yet brilliantly executed move. Colonel William F. Upton (1832-1887) Born Tennessee. Came to Texas 1853. When Civil War broke, enlisted Texas state troops mustered in for Texas frontier protection. He served in various military units in Texas, helping to successfully guard the 2000 miles of frontier and coastline open to Union or Indian attack. Promoted to Lt. Colonel of Mann's regiment, stationed in Galveston area along with other Texas troops to prevent expected mass Union invasion in 1865. Member of State Legislature 1866, 1876-82.

REAGAN COUNTY

29-Grierson Spring

Marker Title: Grierson Spring
County: Reagan
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: N/A
Marker Text: Established as an outpost to Fort Concho, April 30th, 1878. Stage stand on the Ft. Concho to Ft. Stockton route, 1875-1882. Named in honor of General Benjamin H. Grierson who commanded the Federal troops in the region, April 23, 1875, to July 20th, 1882. Abandoned as a military post in 1882.

29-Martin-Catillo Expedition

Marker Title: Martin-Castillo Expedition
Address: US 67, Main and 2nd Streets
City: Big Lake
County: Reagan
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: US67 at corner of Main and 2nd, Big Lake
Marker Text: Explored the Concho River, 32 miles north of here, gathering information on Jumano Indians and searching for pearls, 1650. Setting out from Santa Fe, Capts. Hernan Martin and Diego Del Castillo traveled about 600 miles to the Jumano territory, where they stayed for 6 months. Further travels took them to the edge of the Texas nation, where they obtained the first information definitely about the tribe that gave Texas its name. The "discoveries" of their journey -- pearls and the Texas nation -- sparked later important Spanish expeditions to East Texas.

29-Reagan County

Marker Title: Reagan County
Address: US 67, about 3 mi W of Big Lake
City: Big Lake
County: Reagan
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: about 3 miles west of Big Lake on US 67 in Roadside Park
Marker Text: Formed from Tom Green County; created March 7, 1903, organized April 20, 1903. Named in honor of John H. Reagan 1818-1905. Indian fighter and surveyor member of Texas Legislature and United States Congress postmaster general of the southern Confederacy. County seat, Stiles 1903-1925, Big Lake since.

IRION COUNTY

30-Site of Coughlin's Stage Stand

Marker Title: Site of Coughlin's Stage Stand
City: Mertzon vicinity
County: Irion
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: from Mertzon take FM 2469 W about 22 mi. to FM 163, go N about 10.5 mi. to private ranch road - Marker is on ranch on private property.
Marker Text: On the southern overland route, St. Louis to San Francisco, 1858-1861. Later known as Camp Charlotte.

30-Dove Creek Battle

Marker Title: Dove Creek Battle
City: Mertzon
County: Irion
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: Courthouse lawn, corner of Sherwood and Parkview
Marker Text: On January 8, 1865 eight miles east of here Confederate troops and Texas militiamen engaged a large party of Kickapoo Indians. The Indians, formerly hostile to the South, had entered Texas without authority and were making their way to Mexico. Troops attacked them and following five hours of desperate fighting, withdrew, having suffered the loss of 22 killed and 19 wounded. Indian losses from the encounter were probably less. Later raids by the Kickapoos were traced to the Dove Creek fight. Erected by the State of Texas 1963.

30-Dove Creek Battlefield

Marker Title: Dove Creek Battlefield
City: Mertzon vicinity
County: Irion
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: private property on the Dove Creek Ranch, 8 mi. SE of Mertzon via FM 915 and CR 113.
Marker Text: Around this mountain a battle was fought on January 8, 1865 between 2000 Indians and Texas Rangers and State Troops commanded by Captains John Fossett and S. S. Totten. Four officers and 22 of their men lie in unmarked graves nearby.

30-Irion County

Marker Title: Irion County
City: Mertzon
County: Irion
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: on US 67, 2 mi. N of Mertzon
Marker Text: Created March 7,1889 Organized April 16,1889 Named in honor of Robert Anderson Irion, 1806-1860. Came to Texas in 1833 and located at Nacogdoches. Member of the first Texas Congress. Secretary of State in the cabinet of President Houston, 1837-1838. Sherwood, the county seat.

30-Irion County Museum

Museum Name: Irion County Musuem
Mailing Address: 301 Horseshoe Bend Trail
Street Address: Fayette and 1st Streets
City: Mertzon
Zip Code: 76941
Area Code: 915
Phone: 835-4583
County: Irion

30-Texas Civil War Indian Trouble

Marker Title: Texas Civil War Indian Trouble
City: Mertzon
County: Irion
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: Courthouse lawn, corner of Sherwood and Parkview
Marker Text: War brought turmoil to Indians living in Kansas and the Indian Territory, with unfortunate results for Texans on the frontier. Most Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles aided the South, while others adhered to the North. Few Comanches made a treaty with the South; but a great majority with their allies, the Kiowas, held aloof from either side and plundered the frontier at will. Apaches and Kickapoos did the same from Mexico. Texas and Confederate troops, despite poor arms and mounts, held defense lines until war's end. (1963)

TOM GREEN COUNTY

31-Enlisted Men's Barracks, #5

Marker Title: Enlisted Men's Barracks, #5
Address: Ave. C & Burgess, Fort Concho
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: Fort Concho, 2nd Building, West from corner of Burgess & Ave C Marker Text: N/A

31-Enlisted Men's Barracks, #6

Marker Title: Enlisted Men's Barracks, #6
Address: Ave. C & Burgess St., Fort Concho
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: Corner of Ave C and Burgess St. San Angelo
Marker Text: N/A

31-Fort Concho

Marker Title: Fort Concho
Address: Oakes & D St.
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Marker Location: Oakes St. at corner of Oakes & Ave. D, San Angelo
Marker Text: The center of a line of forts extending from the northeastern border of Texas to El Paso. Was also northern point of southern chain of forts extending to Rio Grande, thence along that river to its mouth. Established 1867 (at then junction of Butterfield Trail, Goodnight Trail and road to San Antonio) by 4th Cavalry under Capt. George G. Huntt to protect frontier. By March 1, 1870, fort buildings were (in order of their construction) a commissary and quartermaster storehouse, hospital, five officers quarters, a magazine and two barracks-- all built of sandstone. Among those who commanded post were: Gen. Wm. R. Shafter (later major general of volunteers, Spanish-American War; commanded troops at capture of Santiago de Cuba, July 1898); Maj. John P. Hatch (at one time fort was named in his honor); Gen. Wesley Merritt (first commander of Fort Davis after Civil War; was later superintendent of U. S. Military Academy at West Point); Gen. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie (who led attacks, from this and other forts, credited with defeat of Indian resistance in southwest); and Gen. Benjamin H. Grierson, commander of Negro troops of 10th Cavalry. On June 20, 1889, fort was abandoned as a military post and property passed into private ownership. (1970)

31-Chapel and School House of Fort Concho

Marker Title: Chapel and School House of Fort Concho
Address: Ave. D and Burgess St.
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: Located on southwest corner of intersection of E. Ave. D and Burgess Street. Fort Concho, San Angelo
Marker Text: N/A

31-Administration Building of the Fort Concho

Marker Title: Administration Building of the Fort Concho
Address: Fort Concho, between Ave. C & D
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: Fort Concho on Center Green, N. End, between Avenues C & D, San Angelo
Marker Text:--

31-Fort Concho National Historic Landmark

Museum Name: Fort Concho National Historic Landmark
Address: 630 S Oakes
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Zip Code: 76903
Area Code: 915
Phone: 481-2646

31-Officers Quarters No. 2

Marker Title: Officers Quarters No. 2
Address: 115 East Ave. D.
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 115 East Avenue D, San Angelo 2nd building from West end of Officers Row.
Marker Text: N/A

31-Officers Quarters No. 4, Fort Concho, Texas

Marker Title: Officers Quarters No. 4, Fort Concho, Texas (missing)
Address: 201 East Ave. D
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 201 East Avenue D
Marker Text: N/A

31-Officers Quarters No. 8, Fort Concho, Texas

Marker Title: Officers Quarters No. 8, Fort Concho, Texas.
Address: Fort Concho, Ave C.
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: Bldg. on North one-half of Lot No. 8, Block 55, Ft. Concho Addition
Marker Text: N/A

31-The Tenth Cavalry

Marker Title: The Tenth Cavalry
Address: Ave. D & Oakes St.
City: San Angelo
County: Tom Green
Year Marker Erected: 1987
Marker Location: Corner of Ave D & Oakes St. (on Oakes St.) Fort Concho National Historic Site.
Marker Text: Following the Civil War, the United States Congress authorized the creation of six regiments of black U.S. Army troops. The Tenth Cavalry was organized in 1867 under the leadership of Col. Benjamin Grierson (1826-1911). The order creating black troops also specified that they would be commanded by white officers. Facing problems of racial discrimination at the regiment's headquarters in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, Grierson wanted the Tenth Cavalry reassigned to the West, and they arrived at Fort Concho in the Spring of 1875. The contributions of the men of the Tenth Cavalry to the settlement of the American West are of major importance. They took part in grueling scouting and mapping expeditions and campaigns against hostile Indians, often facing days without proper supplies or water on the high plains. They were instrumental in the defeat of the Mescalero Apache Indians led by Chief Victorio in 1880. The men of the Tenth Cavalry were stationed at Fort Concho until 1882, when they were moved to Fort Davis. Transferred frequently after 1885, members of the unit eventually served throughout the world, including Cuba, North Africa, Germany, Korea, and Vietnam. (1987)

CONCHO COUNTY

32-John S. Chisum, Confederate Beef Contractor

Marker Title: John S. Chisum, Confederate Beef Contractor
City: Paint Rock vicinity
County: Concho
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: from Paint Rock, take US 83 north about 4 miles.
Marker Text: (1824-1884) On this site during the Civil War and later, grazed by tens of thousands the Longhorns of cattle baron John S. Chisum. Ranch headquarters were 10 miles east. Here in 1863-1865, Chisum not only ranched but also was buyer of cattle to feed Confederate armies stationed west of the Mississippi River. Born in Tennessee, he came to the Republic of Texas in 1837. After a term as Lamar County clerk, started ranching in 1853. For room to expand, moved his well known "Jingle - Bob" herds to the Concho in 1863. Though he was not the man who gave the name to the famed northbound trail (this was Jesse Chisolm) John S. Chisum's drives were heroic. Herds bound in wartime for Louisiana army camps had to by-pass or to fight Indians, rustlers and occasionally a federal patrol. Concho cattle had to swim across the deep, cold Brazos River. Here cowboys would prod a heavy, wild bull till he was angry; then he would turn on men and horses. Or the Brazos itself killed men and horses. Still beef went through to the Confederates. After the war, Chisum developed ranches in New Mexico and was a bystander in the Lincoln County Wars of Billy the Kid and other desperados. (1965)

32-Largest Pictograph Site in Texas

Marker Title: Largest Pictograph Site in Texas
City: Paint Rock vicinity
County: Concho
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: from Paint Rock, take US 83 north 1 mile, turn west just north of Concho River Bridge and follow gravel road 1.5 miles (Private)
Marker Text: 1500 paintings by various tribes at widely differing dates are scattered along the bluff for a half mile. Most outstanding pictorial contribution of the nomadic tribes of Texas.

33-Site of Mission San Clemente

Marker Title: Site of Mission San Clemente
City: Millersview vicinity
County: Concho
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: 12 miles north of Millersview on FM 2134
Marker Text: At the juncture of the Concho and Colorado rivers. Established March 16, 1684, by the Mendoza Expedition for the purpose of civilizing and Christianizing the Indians of the region.

TERRELL COUNTY

34-Terrell County Memorial Museum

Museum Name: Terrell County Memorial Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 7
Street Address: 210 Mansfield St.
City: Sanderson
Zip Code: 79848
County: Terrell

34-Terrell County

Marker Title: Terrell County
Address: US 90
City: Sanderson
County: Terrell
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: On US 90, 1 mile W. of Sanderson
Marker Text: Formed from Pecos County. Created April 8,1905, organized September 19, 1905. Named in honor of Alexander Watkins Terrell 1827-1912. A distinguished officer in the confederate army member of the Texas legislature for sixteen years. Sanderson, the County Seat.

34-General Alexander W. Terrell

Marker Title: General Alexander W. Terrell
Address: Hackberry & Second St.
City: Sanderson
County: Terrell
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: Courthouse Lawn, corner of Hackberry and Second Sts., Sanderson Marker Text: Born Virginia. Came to Texas 1852-Dist. Judge 1857-63. Entered confederate service 1863 as Lt. Col. Commanded Terrell's Texas cavalry. Assigned special duty to try to keep open vital supply sources of cotton-lifeblood of South. Led his unit in Red River campaign 1864 to prevent Union invasion of Texas, being wounded battle Mansfield. Promoted Brigadier General 1865. Went to Mexico rather than surrender at war's end, soon returned to Texas. As state legislator authored present primary election law. Minister to Turkey 1893-97. Outstanding lawyer and public servant. Texas made an all-out effort for the confederacy after a 3 to 1 popular vote for secession. 90,000 troops, famed for mobility and daring, fought on every battlefront. A 2,000-mile frontier and coastline was successfully defended from union troops and savage Indians. Wagon trains, laden with cotton-life blood of the south-crossed the state to Mexico to trade for medical supplies, clothing, military goods, state and private industry produced wagons, pots, kettles, leather goods, ammunition, guns, salt, hospital supplies. At home old men, women, children, slaves provided grain, meats, cotton, cloth to the army, giving much, keeping little. A memorial to Texans who served the confederacy erected by the state of Texas 1963.

34-Judge Roy Bean Visitor's Center

Just 61 short miles to the east in the city of Langtry is the Judge Roy Bean Visitor's Center.

Museum Name: Judge Roy Bean Visitor Center
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 160
City: Langtry
Zip Code: 78871
Area Code: 915
Phone: 291-3340
County: Val Verde

CROCKETT COUNTY

35-The Chihuahua Trail and Escondido Water Hole

Marker Title: The Chihuahua Trail and Escondido Water Hole
Address: Fort Lancaster State Historic Park
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1976
Marker Location: Visitor's Center Parking Area, Fort Lancaster SH Park, 36 miles west of Ozona Via IH-10 and US 290.
Marker Text: The Chihuahua Trail was opened by segments, but was not called by this name until the 19th century. A small part of the route, along the nearby Pecos River, was followed by the Spaniard Gaspar Castano de Sosa in 1590, during an expedition to New Mexico. By 1850, the trail was finally extended to connect the city of Chihuahua and the Texas Gulf Coast, by way of San Antonio. Gold seekers going to California found it practical because it touched at all known water holes in this rugged terrain. Heaviest use of the trail came during the mid-1870s, when freighters transported tons of silver and copper from the state of Chihuahua for shipment to the eastern U.S. One of the landmarks along the Chihuahua Trail in this part of western Texas was Escondido ("Hidden") water hole, seven miles southeast of Fort Lancaster. A small, deep well in the side of a rugged canyon, this water source was very hard to find, but saved the lives of many travelers. However, it is flanked by rock cairns marking the graves of some who died near the water hole of accidents or disease.

35-Site of Comstock-Ozona Stage Stand

Marker Title: Comstock-Ozona Stage Stand, Site of
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1972
Marker Location: on SH 163, about 20 miles south of Ozona
Marker Text: Flagstone ruins nearby mark site of early 1900's stage stand, first stop on passenger and mail line connecting Ozona with Southern Pacific railhead at Comstock--80 miles distant. When stage pulled in about 8:30 A.M. (having left Ozona at 5:00) agent had fresh horses in harness for next 20-mile run. Agent's family lived in tent with a flagstone floor. Other structures here were rock pens for a pig and cow and probably a corral for horses. Automobile replaced stage about 1914, but wagon ruts are still visible.

35-Crockett County

Marker Title: Crockett County
Address: Courthouse Grounds
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: on Courthouse grounds, corner of 11th and Avenue D, Ozona
Marker Text: Formed from Bexar Territory Created January 22, 1875 Organized July 7, 1891. Named in honor of David Crockett 1786-1836. Member of the United States Congress from Tennessee Killed at the Alamo Ozona, County Seat.

35-Crockett County Museum

Museum Name: Crockett County Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 1444
Street Address: 404 11th Street
City: Ozona
Zip Code: 76943
Area Code: 915
Phone: 392-2837
County: Crockett

35-David Crockett

Marker Title: Crockett, David
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Marker Location: on Courthouse grounds, corner of 11th and Avenue D, Ozona
Marker Text: Was born in Tennessee on August 17, 1786 Participated in the Creek Indian Campaign 1813-1814 Member of the Tennessee House of Representatives 1821-1823. United States Congressman from Tennessee 1827-1831 and 1833-1835 Arrived in Texas in January 1836 Died a hero at the Alamo March the Sixth 1836. .. Be sure you are right - then go ahead ..

35-Fort Lancaster, C. S. A.

Marker Title: Fort Lancaster, C. S. A.
Address: Courthouse Grounds
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1963
Marker Location: on Courthouse grounds, corner of 11th and Avenue D, Ozona
Marker Text: Site 33 miles west on US 90. Upon U. S. surrender Texas Forts start of Civil War, made part Confederate far western frontier line. Occupied by 2nd Texas cavalry. On supply line to and from Arizona-New Mexico Campaign 1861-62, intended to make Confederacy an ocean to ocean nation. When regular patrols to guard supply trains and check Indian activities grew dull, life spiced by camp newspaper and nightly sport of shooting pesky coyotes. A memorial to Texans who served the Confederacy erected by the State of Texas. (1963)

35-Ruins of Fort Lancaster

Marker Title: Fort Lancaster, Ruins of
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: at the ruins of Fort Lancaster, 36 miles west of Ozona via I-10 and US 290.
Marker Text: Established in 1855 by the United States Government as a protection to travelers and mail on the overland route from San Antonio to San Diego. Abandoned in 1861. Reoccupied in 1868 for a short time. 1966 Established August 20, 1855. By United States Government. One half-mile above the junction of Live Oak Creek with the Pecos River in present Crockett County. Garrisoned by U.S. Second Cavalry who protected travellers and mail on the San Antonio - El Paso Military Road. Fort was abandoned March 18, 1861, after Texas seceded from the Union. Reoccupied by Federal troops, 1868, for a short time. At Pecos River, just south of Hwy. 290 river bridge, is one of the most used Texas pioneer fords. Ruts made by wagon wheels sliding downhill are plainly visible. (new marker that is now missing -1966-) behind TxDot Ozona Office on SH 163 N in scrapyard - poor, star and plate missing.

35-Old Government Road

Marker Title: Government Road, Old
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: Lancaster Hill Roadside Park, 30.5 miles west of Ozona on Hwy. 290 (via I-10).
Marker Text: Route of march and troop supply on Texas frontier. Followed in part pre-Columbian Indian trails and "Old Chihuahua Trail" that ran from San Antonio to El Paso and Mexico. In 1840s this was extended to Gulf Coast Port of Indianola where imported goods arrived from the United States and Europe, and were freighted out to be exchanged in Chihuahua for ore of silver and gold, leather goods, and other products. In 1848 water holes and camp sites were marked as this road was re-charted for use of U.S. troops sent to protect Texas frontiers from Indian invasions. Army posts were built along this road: Fort Clark, between San Antonio and Del Rio, 1852; Fort Davis, in the Davis Mountains, 1854; Camp Lancaster, at this site, became Fort Lancaster in 1856. Camp Hudson and Fort Stockton were founded in 1857 and 1859. With all the army traffic, trail won new name of "Government Road." Pioneer settlers, adventurers, California-bound gold seekers--even camel trains in government service--traveled this road in spite of frequent encounters with Comanches, Apaches, Kiowas, and other Indians. The Army finally stationed troops in continuous picket line from San Antonio to El Paso. However, it was not until 1870 that relatively safe passage was assured.

35-Howard's Well

Marker Title: Howard's Well
City: Ozona
County: Crockett
Year Marker Erected: 1976
Marker Location: Visitor's Center Parking Area, Fort Lancaster SH Park 36 miles west of Ozona via IH-10 and US 290.
Marker Text: First known to civilized men in the 18th century, when, according to legend, Franciscan Padre Alvarez prayed for water to ease his thirst, put down his staff, and saw a spring gush forth from the ground. This landmark of western travel was named for its discoverer, Richard A. Howard of San Antonio, an ex-Texas Ranger. Howard and other men, along with 15 Delaware Indian guides, made up an expedition sent out in 1848 under Col. John Coffee Hays to map a wagon road from San Antonio to El Paso. Although aided by the discovery of the well, the expedition failed, turning back in a state of near-starvation. In 1849 the US Army made its maps of the route, with Howard along as a guide. Many forty-niners went this way to the California gold rush. In 1853 the first regular San Antonio to El Paso mail line was routed by way of the well. So were many later ventures. Although white travelers seldom caught sight of them, Indians frequented the well. There on April 20, 1872, Comanches and Kiowas surprised a large wagon train led by a man named Gonzales, and killed 16 persons. This was one of the events that led to the US Government's cancellation of hunting permits for reservation Indians.

36-Fort Lancaster State Historical Park

Museum Name: Fort Lancaster State Historical Park
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 306
Street Address: 8 miles east on US 290
City: Sheffield
Zip Code: 79781
Area Code: 915
Phone: 836-4391
County: Crockett

SUTTON COUNTY

37-Miers Home Museum

Museum Name: Miers Home Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 885
Street Address: 307 E Oak Street
City: Sonora
Zip Code: 76950
Area Code: 915
Phone: 387-5144
County: Sutton

37-Sutton County

Marker Title: Sutton County
Address: SH 67, E of Sonora
City: Sonora
County: Sutton
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: 4 miles east of Sonora on SH 467
Marker Text: Has traces of culture at least 20,000 years old, occupied by Apache Indians up to founding of Fort Terrett, 1852. Anglo-Texan settlement began 1879 at Sonora, a trading post on San Antonio-El Paso Road. Created April 1, 1887, from land then in Crockett County; organized November 4, 1890, with Sonora as the county seat. Named in honor of John S. Sutton (1821-1862), a member of Santa Fe Expedition, Texas Ranger and Indian fighter, soldier in Mexican War and colonel of Mounted Volunteers, who died of wounds received in Civil War Battle of Val Verde. 1936/1965

37-Colonel John S. Sutton

Marker Title: Colonel John S. Sutton
Address: Water & Main St.
City: Sonora
County: Sutton
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Marker Location: Courthouse Grounds; corner of Water and Main Streets Sonora
Marker Text: An outbreak Civil War, this veteran soldier, Ranger, Indian fighter joined 7th Regiment Texas Mounted Volunteers. Elected Lt. Colonel, led five companies Arizona-New Mexico campaign designed to make Confederacy an ocean to ocean nation. Mortally wounded in Battle of Val Verde while leading rifle assault against enemy cannons, he refused immediate aid and motioned on his battalion which captured the battery. A memorial to Texans who served the Confederacy.

38-Fort Terrett Headquarters

Marker Title: Fort Terrett Headquarters
Address: CR 307 off IH 10 via exit 429
City: Sonora
County: Sutton
Year Marker Erected: 1962
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: From Sonora, take I-10 East about 30 miles to Exit 429 go under I-10 to FM 3130, go East on 3130 about 1 mile to CR 307, go down CR 307 about 1 mile to Ranch Headquarters *Private property*
Marker Text: N/A

38-Site of Fort Terrett

Marker Title: Site of Fort Terrett
Address: CR 307 off IH 10 via exit 429
City: Sonora
County: Sutton
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: From Sonora, take I-10 East about 30 miles to Exit 429 go under I-10 to FM 3130, go east on 3130 about 1 mile to CR 307, go down CR 307 about 1 mile to marker.
Marker Text: Established February 5, 1852 by the United States Army as a protection to frontier settlers, named in honor of Lieutenant John C. Terrett who fell at Monterrey, September 21, 1846; abandoned February 26, 1854.

EDWARDS COUNTY

39-Pioneer Coalsons

Marker Title: The Pioneer Coalsons
City: Barksdale
County: Edwards
Year Marker Erected: 1972
Marker Location: .5 miles north of Nueces River on SH 55; Barksdale
Marker Text: Indians attacked goat camp of Nick Coalson on June 1, 1877; son Arthur, 10, was killed; Johnny, 14, wounded. Coalson escaped after 3 hours of hard fighting. One year later he lost his wife Alice, a daughter Etta Elizabeth (twin of Arthur), and infant stepson in another Indian raid. Captains Pat Dolan and Dan Roberts with Texas Ranger units, S. D. Coalson (Nick's son), U.S. Army scout Jim Hill, Jim and John Welch, and Henry and Sam Wells pursued but failed to find the Indians. The victim's graves are near old homesite, on Half Moon Prairie. Coalson descendants are prominent in Texas history. (1972)

39-Dixie Settlement

Marker Title: Dixie Settlement
City: Barksdale
County: Edwards
Year Marker Erected: 1974
Marker Location: .5 miles north of Nueces River on SH 55; Barksdale
Marker Text: Named for Camp Dixie, a Texas Ranger post near Military Road to Fort Inge (42 miles southeast). First civilian settler was Jerusha Sanchez, midwife for Nueces Canyon area, widowed by Indians in the 1870s. Next came Elizabeth Hill, whose eldest son Jim was a military scout. Lewis Barksdale, a veteran of Republic of Texas wars, opened a ranch on his 1876 land grant. The J. R. (Bob) Sweeten family established a store that became the focus for the expanding community. When a post office was created in 1882 and named for Lewis Barksdale, the name Dixie disappeared from use. (1974)

40-Edwards County

Marker Title: Edwards County
City: Rocksprings
County: Edwards
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Marker Location: south end of courthouse square, Rocksprings
Marker Text: Atop the Edwards Plateau, extending into the scenic Nueces Valley. Angora goat capital of the world. The economy is based on ranching. Wild game is abundant. Created in 1858 and organized 1883 from old Bexar district. Named for Haden Edwards (1813-1865), an early leader and colonizer in Texas. First county seat was Leakey; present boundaries were created, and county seat was moved on April 13, 1891, to Rocksprings. First courthouse and jail were built that year. After a fire in 1897, the present courthouse was erected; it withstood a destructive tornado that claimed 72 lives in the county in 1927. First officials to serve the county (1891-1893) as it is presently constituted were the following: James M. Hunter, County Judge; W. M. Sanford, County and District Clerk; Ira L. Wheat, Sheriff and Tax Collector; S.A. Hough, County Attorney; W.H. Cowan, County Treasurer County Commissioners: John Eaton, Precinct No. 1; C. H. Kirchner, Precinct No. 2; H. Schweithelm, Precinct No. 3; M. M. Bradford, Precinct No. 4 (1967)

40-Stopping Place on the Fort Clark-Fort McKavett Military Road

Marker Title: Stopping Place on the Fort Clark-Fort McKavett Military Road
City: Rocksprings
County: Edwards
Marker Location: from Rocksprings take US Highway 377 north approximately 20.5 miles.
Marker Text: One of many roads built to connect frontier cavalry posts in Texas, this route led south to Fort Clark and north to Fort McKavett (both established in 1852). Rocksprings, located here at the head of the South Llano River, was a natural mid-way rest stop. In 1877 Major John B. Jones' Texas Rangers assembled here to begin a major offensive to capture frontier outlaws. In addition to its military uses, the Fort Clark-Fort McKavett Road provided an accessible route for immigrants, cattle drovers, pioneer ranchers, mail carriers, and freighters. (1968, 1990)

40-Mackenzie Trail

Marker Title: Mackenzie Trail
City: Rocksprings
County: Edwards
Year Marker Erected: 1977
Marker Location: from Rocksprings take SH 55 north approximately 9 miles
Marker Text: When the U.S. Army built Forts Clark (70 miles southwest) and McKavett (90 miles northeast) in 1852, this frontier trail connected the posts. After Fort Concho was established in 1867, the trail was extended farther north, to present San Angelo. It was later named for Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie, the 1873 commander of Fort Clark, who traveled it in his campaigns against hostile Indians. One of its landmarks was Mackenzie Lake (6.5 miles north), which furnished water for the troops, for cattle drives up the trail, for settlers, and for Texas Rangers on frontier patrols. (1977)

40-Clinton LaFayette Smith

Marker Title: Clinton LaFayette Smith
City: Rocksprings
County: Edwards
Year Marker Erected: 2001
Marker Location: Rocksprings Cemetery, on SH 41, 1 mile north of US 377
Marker Text: Clinton (Clint) Lafayette Smith, son of Henry M. and Fanny (Short) Smith, was born in Kendall County, Texas. Clint, age 11, and his brother Jeff, age 9, were kidnapped by Lipan and Comanche Indians while herding sheep near their home in 1871. Clint was adopted by Chief Tasacowadi and lived with the Comanche for five years, until he gave himself up in a trade for Indians imprisoned at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. After returning to his family, Smith became a trail driver and Angora goat breeder. He moved to Rocksprings in 1910 with his wife, Dixie (Dyche), and children. (2001)

REAL COUNTY

41-Site of Camp Wood

Marker Title: Site of Camp Wood
Address: SH 55
City: Camp Wood
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: from Camp Wood go north on SH 55 approximately .2 miles
Marker Text: Established May 20, 1857, as a means of preventing Indian raids on the San Antonio - El Paso route and the Rio Grande Valley. Abandoned March 15, 1861, when Federal troops were withdrawn from Texas.

41-San Lorenzo de La Santa Cruz

Marker Title: San Lorenzo de La Santa Cruz
Address: SH 55, about 2 mi N of Camp Wood
City: Camp Wood
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: from Camp Wood go north on SH 55 approximately .2 miles
Marker Text: Founded by Franciscan missionaries among the Lipan Apache Indians in 1762. Abandoned in 1769.

42-Near Route of Famous Cattle Trail

Marker Title: Near Route of Famous Cattle Trail
Address: US 83, S of Leakey
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: from Leakey go south on US Highway 83 approximately 5.2 miles to R.O.W.
Marker Text: One of many "feeder trails" in Texas that converged with the legendary Chisholm Trail above the Red River, this route directed thousands of longhorns to northern markets during the first year after the Civil War. Many local settlers took part in the drives, which lasted for months, and their tales are full of stampedes and Indian raids. At times, the trail was used by herds of 200-300 hogs being driven 40 miles to local markets. The cattle industry and trails such as this helped save Texas' economy -- torn by the Civil War -- and enriched pioneer folklore. (1968)

42-Leakey Cemetery

Marker Title: Leakey Cemetery
Address: RR 337 and School Lane
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1988
Marker Location: Corner of School Lane and RR 337 near cemetery entrance; Leakey Marker Text: Originally known as the Floral Cemetery and serving an earlier community by that name, this cemetery dates to at least 1881. Land for the graveyard was sold by John and Nancy Leakey for one dollar and a cemetery plot. The oldest documented burials here are those of Sara Catherine McLaurin (b. 1849) and fifteen-year-old Allen Lease, who were killed on April 19, 1881, in the last Indian raid in the Frio Canyon area. The next interment was that of Civil War Veteran John Colter Brice, who died April 30, 1881. The only public cemetery in the Leakey vicinity, this graveyard contains the burials of many of the area's early settlers. Gravestones attest to the hardships of life in the 19th and early 20th centuries and the epidemics of measles, typhoid fever, diphtheria, and influenza which claimed many lives. There are over 900 documented burials here, as well as a number of unmarked graves. Those interred in the Leakey Cemetery include pioneers, children, elected officials of Real and Edwards counties, community leaders and veterans. The founder of the town, John Leakey, and his wife Nancy are both buried here. (1988)

42-John Leakey

Marker Title: John Leakey
Address: US 83, on Courthouse grounds
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1983
Marker Location: US 83, West side of Courthouse grounds; Leakey
Marker Text: Tennessee native John Leakey (1824-1900) came to Texas in 1847, settling for a time in Henderson County where he was a brickmason and rancher. He and his wife Nancy (Patterson) moved to Uvalde County in 1852 near present day Sabinal. A desire to pursue other endeavors took him to the Frio Canyon where there was an abundance of cypress timber. Despite constant threats of Indian attacks, Leakey settled his family and started a cypress shingle business. He served the Confederacy as a freighter during the Civil War, hauling provisions for the troops. Leakey returned to his home after the war to establish a steam sawmill and to attend to his ranching interests. He also began a school for the children of the community, and his home often served as a resting place of itinerant preachers. The town, situated on the Bandera-Edwards County line, was laid out in 1833 and named in honor of the resourceful pioneer who donated land for this plaza, a church, school, and cemetery. Leakey served as county seat of Edwards County until 1891, and became county seat of Real County when it was organized in 1913. A successful businessman, Indian fighter and pioneer, John Leakey's contributions and leadership were vital to the early growth of the area. (1983)

42-Private Frank Marshall, C. S. A.

Marker Title: Private Frank Marshall, C. S. A.
Address: US 83, Courthouse grounds
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Marker Location: Courthouse grounds; Leakey
Marker Text: Buried here, 3/10 mile from Camp Wood. A 29-year old Harrison Countian, symbolizes Texans who died for the Confederacy in the Arizona-New Mexico campaign. Served from April 19, 1861, till death June 16, in W. P. Lane Rangers in second front stretched from San Antonio to Santa Fe. Frontier posts at Camp Wood, Ft. Inge, Ft. Clark, Camp Hudson, Howard Spring and Ft. Lancaster supported the 1861-1862 campaign to make the Confederacy an ocean-to-ocean nation. Combat forces included such Texans as Tom Green, Wm. R. Scurry, W. P. Hardeman and Wm. Steele, all later to be generals in the Confederate army. Green and Scurry commanded troops that won Battle of Valverde in Feb. 1862. This victory and others enabled the Confederacy to occupy Arizona and New Mexico and hope to gain California. However, Texas troops found their lines too long and supplies an impossible problem. With scanty food, no blankets, no means of transportation, the army limped back to Texas. On reaching San Antonio, troops hid near the Menger Hotel, pooled their rags to dress one man, then sent out for clothes to cover them so they could go home. Yet these same men re-grouped and won many victories later in the Civil War. (1965

42-Site of McLauren Massacre

Marker Title: Site of McLauren Massacre
Address: RR 336, about 6 mi NW of Leakey
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Marker Location: from Leakey take US Highway 83 north 1 mile; then northwest on RR 336 approximately 5.5 miles.
Marker Text: Occurred here on April 19, 1881. Mrs. Kate McLauren, her 3 small children, and 15-year old Allen Lease were in the garden when Lipan Apaches started to plunder the McLauren home. Lease, thinking pigs were in the house, was shot investigating the noise, and Mrs. McLauren was killed as she fled the garden. The children were unharmed and Maud, 6 years old, went for help because Mr. McLauren was away. Neighbors gave chase for 70 miles. Soldiers from Ft. Clark then took command, trailed and overtook the Indians in Mexico, killing all but two. (1968)

42-Catherine R. McLauren

Marker Title: Catherine R. McLauren
Address: Leakey Floral Cemetery
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1971
Marker Location: located in southwest corner of Leakey Floral Cemetery; Leakey Marker Text: A victim of the last Indian raid in Frio Canyon, April 19, 1881. Mother of three small children, "Kate" McLauren was home with them and a neighbor boy, Allen Lease, when a Lipan Apache band started to plunder their house. Although shot with a bullet, she sent her six-year-old child, Maud, for help, but died shortly after her husband John's return that night. When the cemetery in Leakey was established, she and Lease were the first burials. Recorded 1971

42-Real County

Marker Title: Real County
Address: US 83 at Courthouse grounds
City: Leakey
County: Real
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Marker Location: Southwest corner of Courthouse grounds; Leakey
Marker Text: Located on the Edwards Plateau, Real County is in an area of rolling terrain broken by the canyons of the Frio River. Because of raids by Comanche, Apache, and Lipan Apache Indians, white settlement was hindered until after 1881. Mission San Lorenzo de La Santa Cruz was founded by the Spanish in 1762 near present Camp Wood. The county was created on April 3, 1913, from Edwards, Kerr, and Bandera counties: organized on July 26, 1913, it was named in honor of Julius Real (1860-1944), a prominent businessman and state senator, 1909-1914 and 1924-1928. Leakey, the county seat, was established by John Leakey (1824-1900), a pioneer settler in the region. (1968)

42-Real County Historical Museum

Museum Name: Real County Historical Museum
Mailing Address: P. O. Box 258
78873 Street Address: 301 Evergreen
City: Leakey
Area Code: 210
Phone: 232-5330
County: Real

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